Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/27

Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the ANS intervate?
Cardiac and Smooth Muscle

and Glands
What are the two neurons of the efferent pathways of the ANS?
PREGANGLIONIC NEURON, which begins in the CNS and is lightly myelinated and has a thin preganglionic axon

GANGLIONIC NEURON is thinner and has an unmyelinated postganglionic axon

There is also an AUTONOMIC GANGLION
What are the differences between the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous system fibers?
the sympathetic(flight and fright)has a short preganglionic and long postganglionic fibers

the parasympathetic has the opposite
What are the differences between the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic neurotransmitters?
the sympathetic division produces acetycholine and norepinephine

the parasympathetic only produces acetycholine
What does the D Division refer to?
The parasympathetic (resting and digesting)

digestion
defecation
diuresis
What does the E Division refer to?
the sympathetic (flight or fright)

exercise
exictement
emergency
embarrassment
What is dual innervation refer to?
the fact that both division of the ANS (para and sympathetic) are always on, but usually one is on a lot and the other is on only a little

rarly all or nothing
Where are the orgins of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous systems?
Sympathetic: thoracolumbar spinal cord

Parasympathetic: CRANIAL-SACRAL AREA!!
What are the locations of the ganglia in the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous systems?
ParaSympathetic: EFFECTOR ORGANS (where they synapse in the terminal or intramural ganglia)

Parasympathetic: lie close to the spinal cord
Why is the Parasympathetic nervous system also called the craniosacral division?
because its fibers emerge from the brain stem and the sacrum
What 3 cranial nerves contain parasympathetic outflow?
CN 3 (Oculomotor)-pupillary constriction and lens bulging

CN 7 (Facial) - nasal and lacrimal glands

CN 9 (Glossopharyngeal) - Parotid salivary glands

*OF THESE THREE CN, ONLY THE PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS ARE WITHIN THE STATED CN, THE POSTGANGLIONIC FIBERS ARE WITHIN/OVERLAP CN 5(TRIGEMINAL)
Why is CN 10 (Vagus) important to the Parasympathetic nervous system?
1. accounts of 90% of all PREganglionic parasympathetic fibers in the body

2. innervates almost every organ of the thorax and abdomen

3. goes to esophagus, to aortic plexus and branch to abd organs (LIV, GB, ST, SI, KID, Pancreas and proximal half of LI
Describe the sacral outflow of the parasympathetic nervous system?
S2-S4 ventral rami, which form the pelvic (or splanchic nerves) which pass through the inferior hypogastric pelvic plexus

-afffects: distal LI, UB, ureters and reproductive organs
Describe the thoracolumber outflow of the sympathetic nervous system?
- cell bodies located in spinal cord from T1-L2

-VISCERAL MOTOR ZONES (lateral horns) are formed by preganlionic neurons in the spinal cord GRAY MATTER

-they enter the white rami communicates and then an adjoining chain or paravertebral ganglion that forms the sympathetic trunk or chain

-even though the fibers arise from thoracolumber the sympathetic trunks extend from the neck to the pelvis. There are 23 ganglia in each chain:
three cranial
eleven thoracic
four lumbar
four sacral
one coccygeal
What three things can happen to a preganglionic axon in a ganglion?
1- It can synapse within the ganglion to another neuron

2- It can ascend or descend to another ganglion

3- It can continue past the ganglion w/out synapsing (only in Abd/Pelvis = splanchnic nerves, anterior to spine)
Describe the sympathetic pathways with ganglionic synapses.
- POSTGANGLIONIC AXONS enter the VENTRAL or DORSAL RAMUS via the ""GREY RAMI COMMUNICATES"", they effect the skin, sweat glands, nad blood vessels and are unmyelinated

- fibers that go to the head arise from T1-T4 and synapse in the superior cervical ganglion

-Fibers that go to the thorax orginate from T1-T6 and synapse in the middle and inferior cervical ganglia

- Postganglionic fibers emerging from the middle and inferior cervical ganglia enter the cervical nerves C4-C8
Describe the sympathetic preganglionic pathways that do not synapse in the chain ganglion.
- thoracic, lumbar, and sacral splanchnic nerves contribute to the abdominal aortic plexus and synapse in the following order from superior to inferior:
"CELIAC
SUPERIOR MESENTERIC
INFERIOR MESENTERIC
INFERIOR HYPOGASTRIC"

*these are all named for the nerves that they are nearest

-Pathways to the ABD (T5-L2)
-Pathways to pelvis (T10-L2)
Describe the sympathetic pathways with synapses in the adrenal medulla.
-some fibers in the thoracic splanchnic pass through the celiac ganglion and synapse in the adrenal gland medullary cells causing secretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine into the blood
Describe visceral reflexes.
-sense chemical changes, strech (most painful) and irriation of the viscera

-very similar to a somatic reflex arc: each has a receptor, sensory neuronm integration center, motor neuron, and effector. The difference is that the motor chain has 2 neurons in a visceral arc (unlike skeletal where there's always one)
How does referred pain work?
-visceral pain afferents travel (highjack) along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers, which may explain why visceral pain may feel like somatic pain
What is Atropine?
Anticholinergic that blocks parasympathetic effects (Acetylcholine)

-it is used presurgically to prevent salivation and respiratory secretions and ophthmologically for pupil dilation
What is neostigmine?
an anticholinesterase (to prevent cholinestrase from braking down Acetylcholine)

-used to treat myasthenia gravis
What is the effect of tricylic antidepressants?
"PROLONGS ACTIVITY OF NE ON THE POSTSYNAPTIC MEMBRANE"
What is the effect of sympathometics?
OTC Drugs that stimulate a-adrenergic receptors

-treat colds, allergies, coughs, and nasal congestion
What is the effect of B-Adrenergic blockers?
reduces heart rate and prevent arrhythmias
What happens with a release of NE?
"SWEATY PALMS, INCREASED HEART RATE"
How does a release of epinephrine effect the lungs?
"IT DILATES THE BRONCHIOLES OF THE LUNGS"