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45 Cards in this Set

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Midsagittal plane
divides body into right and left halves
Medial
towards the middle of the body
ex. right eye is medial to right ear
lateral
located farther from the middle
ex. right ear is lateral to right eye
Coronal plane
divides body into front and back halves
anterior
towards the front
ex. right eye is anterior to right ear
ventral
closer to the belly
ex. right eye is ventral to right ear
posterior
behind
ex. right ear is posterior to right eye
dorsal
towards the back
ex. right ear is dorsal to right eye
Transverse plane
horizontal cut through body
Superior
above
ex. right eye is superior to mouth
inferior/caudal
below
ex. mouth is inferior to nose
cranial/cephalic
towards the head
ex. chin is cranial to breast bone
proximal
closer to
ex. knee is proximal to shin
distal
farther or distant
ex. toes are distal to the knee
Central region of body
head, neck, trunk
Body trunk
thorax, abdomen, pelvis
right/left hypochondriac region
region on right/left side of body just below the cartilage of the ribs
epigastric region
stomach region (upper middle section)
right/left lumbar regions
region at top of hip bone on right/left side
umbilical region
central region- belly button
right/left iliac region
lower hip sections- where ball joint in hip is
hypogastric region
region in middle below navel- anal region
hematopoiesis
process of blood formation
upper respiratory pathway
nose, mouth, trachea
lower respiratory pathway
bronchi, lungs
pathological anatomy
study of body structures having broken patterns which leads to disease
pathophysiology
abnormal body functions associated with disease
superficial
towards the surface
body fluids
can be generally classified as inorganic saline solutions
electolyte
a substance that breaks down into ions when placed into a water solvent so that resulting solution can conduct an electrical current
collagen fibers
thick, rope-like collagen molecules found in extracellular fluid- abundant
has a glueing effect
elastic fibers
rich in elastin
allows for stretching
found in extracellular fluid
Eleven body systems
integumentary
skeletal
muscular
nervous
endocrine
lymphatic
urinary
reproductive
cardiovascular
digestive
respiratory
3 groups of lipids
triglycerides
phospholipids
steroids
triglyceride
contain fatty acid tails attached to three-carbon molecule called glycerol
makes up most of body fat
phospholipids
important anatomical component of most cell membranes
arranged in two columns, hydrophobic fatty acid tails mixed together in the middle of the membrane
has single polar phosphate-nitrogen head end, has + and - charges, hydrophilic
steroids
has a waxy appearance of solid crystals
do not contain fatty acids
group of non-fatty lipids that include closed rings of carbon atoms
ex. cholesterol
cholesterol
a bile solid that includes an alcohol group
solid, oily substance that occurs as square, scaly crystals within bile from the liver
Main Carbohydrates in the Human Body
saccharides and glycogen
Glycogen
polysaccharide
stored in large quantities inside muscle and liver cells
Nucleic Acids
RNA and DNA
Scleroderma
abnormal hardening of the skin, collagen disease
an unusual swelling and fragmentation of the collagen fibers in teh skin
skin becomes progressively thicker, stiffer, and harder until movement becomes impossible
cell/plasma membrane
thin covering that helps mold or form the shape of the cell
is selectively permeable
Nucleus
surrounded by its own nuclear membrane
contains RNA and DNA
contains nucleolus which contains a high concentration of RNA
Cytoplasm
fluid matter within the cell