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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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The principle parts of the brain are the:
brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum
b,c,d,c
The brain is protected by crainial bones and the cranial meninges. The cranial meninges are continuous with the spinal meninges. From superficial to deep they are the:
dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
d,a,p
Blood flow to the brain is mainly via the:
internal carotid and vertebral arteries
2 types of arteries
Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the
choroid plexuses
c,p
csf circulates through the:
lateral ventricles, third ventricle, fourth ventricle, subarachnoid space and central canal.
3 ventricles, one space and one canal
Most of the csf is absorbed into the blood across the:
arachnoid villa of the superior sagittal blood sinus
none
an extension of the dura mater that separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum
falx cerebri
none
an extension of the dura mater that separates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum
falx cerebelli
none
an extension of the dura mater that separates the cerbrum fom the cerebellum
tentorium cerebelli
t
superior to the brain stem, consisting primarily of the thalamus and hypothalamus and including the epithalamus and the subthalamus is the
diencephalon
d
Posterior to the brain stem is the
cerebellum
none
spreads over the diencephalon like a mushroom cap and occupies most of the cranium
cerebrum
none
the csf formed in the choroid plexus of each lateral ventricle flows into the third ventrickle through a pair of narrow oval openings called the
interventricular foramina (foramina of monro)
i,f
More csf is added by the choroid plexus in the roof of the third ventricle. The fluid then flows through the
cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of sylvius) which passes through the mid brain, into the fourth ventricle
c,a
csf enters the subarachnoid space through three openings in the roof of the fourth ventricle;
a median aperture(of Magendie) and the pair of lateral apertures (of Luschka)
three openings-only two names
a continuation of the superior part of the spinal cord; it forms the inferior part of the brain stem
Medulla oblongata
none
On the ventral side of the medulla are two bulges called
the pyramids
none
Just superior to the junction of the medulla with the spinal cord, most of the axons in the left pyramid cross to the right side of the body and most of the axons in the right pyramid cross over to the left side. This crossing over is called
decussation of pyramids
none
Just lateral to each pypamid is an oval shaped swelling called an
olive
none
This causes most of the swelling in the olive; it relays impulses from proprioceptors, such as muscle spindles, to the cerebellum.
inferior olivary nucleus
none
Nuclei associated with some somatic sensations(touch, vibration, and proprioception) are located on the posterior aspect of the medulla. These nuclei ar the right and left:
nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus
none
This lies directly superior to the medulla and anterior to the cerebellum and consists of both nuclei and tracts
pons
none
Important nuclei in the pons are the
pneumotaxic area and the apneustic area
none
extends from the pons to the diencephalon; the cerebral aqueduct passes through it; connecting the 3rd ventricle above with the 4th ventricle below; contains both tracts and nuclei
Midbrain
none
The anterior part of the midbrain contains a pair of tracts called
cerebral peduncles
none
The posterior part of the midbrain is called the
tectum =roof
none
the tectum contains four rounded elevations called
corpora quadrigemina; corpora=bodies quadrigeminus=four twins
none
The two superior elvations of the corpora quadrigemina, know as the _______ ______, serve as reflex centers that govern movements of the eyes, head and neck in response to visual stimuli
superior colliculi
none
The two inferior elevations of the corpora quadrigema, the ______ ______, ar part of the auditory relay from the receptors for hearing in the ear to the sensory cortex of the cerebrum. Also reflex response due to auditory stimuli
inferior colliculi
none
The midbrain contains several nuclei including the left and right ______ ______ and the left and right_____ _____.
substantia nigra, red nuclei
none
extends from the brain stem to the cerebrum and surrounds the third ventricle; it includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and subthalamus
Diencephalon
d
about 3cm and makes up 80% of the diencephalon, consists of paired oval masses of gray matter organized into nuclei with interspersed tracts of white matter
Thalamus
t
these nuclei of the thalamus are concerned with hearing
medial geniculate nuclei
m
these nuclei of the thalamus are concerned with vision
lateral geniculate nuclei
l
supported on the diencephalon and brain stem and forms the bulk of the brain is the
cerebrum
none
The cerebrum is composed of two halves called ______.each of which consists of an outer layer of gray matter an internal region of cerebral white matter and gray matter nuclei within the white matter
hemispheres
none
The superficial gray matter layer of the cerebrum is called the
cerebral cortex
none
The cerebral cortex is the "seat of intelligence" it provides us with the ability to ____,_____,______, make calculations and compose music; and to remember the past plan for the future, and imagine things that have never existed before
read, write and speak
none
During embryonic development, when brain size increases rapidly, the gray matter of the cortex enlarges much faster that the deeper white matter. As a result, the cortical region rolls and folds upon itself. The folds are called_________ or________
gyri or convolutions
wrinkles on brain
The deepest grooves between the folds are known as
fissures
f
the shallower grooves between folds are termed
sulci
s
The most prominent fissure the _______ ________ separates the cerebrum into right and left halves
longitudinal fissure
l
consists of several pairs of nuclei; the two members of each pair are situated in opposite cerebral hemispheres
basal ganglia
b
The _____ ______ receive input from and provide output to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and hypothalamus
basal ganglia
b
The largest nucleus in the basal ganglia is the ______ _____ which consists of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus.
corpus striatum
c
encircling the upper part of the brain stem and the corpus callosum is a ring of structures on the inner border of the cerebrum and floor of the diencephalon that constitutes the:
limbic system
l
the structures of the limbic system are the:
parahippocampal, cingulate gyri, hippocampus
3,p,c-g,h
The ____ ____ lies between the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus
denate gyrus
d-g
The cranial nerves:O,O,O,T,T,A,F,A,G,V,S,H: On Old Olympus Tiny Tops A Fin And German Viewed Some Hops
Olfactory, Optic, Oculomotor, Trochlear Trigeminal, Abducens, Facial, Vestibulocochlear, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus, Spinal accessory, Hypoglossal
none
Cranial nerve I; arises in the olfactory mucosa, passes through foramina in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and ends in the olfactory bulb. Function: Smell
Olfactory
O
Cranial Nerve II; Arises in the retina of the eye, passes through the optic foramen, forms the optic chiasm and then the optic tracts and terminates in the lateral geniculate nuclei of thalamus. Function; Vision
Optic
O
Cranial nerve III; mixed; both sensory and motor; Sensory function is Muscle sense (proprioception); Motor function is Movement of eyeball and eyelid, constriction of pupil
Oculomotor
O
Cranial nerve IV; mixed; Sensory function is Muscle sense (proprioception); Motor function is movement of eyeball
Trochlear
T
Cranial nerve V; mixed; Sensory portion has three branches-ophthalamic, maxillary, mandibular Motor portion is part of the mandibular branch; Sensory function is touch, pain, temperature, and muscle sense;
Motor function is Chewing
Trigeminal
T
Cranial nerve VI; mixed; mainly motor; originates in the pons; Sensory function is muscle sense; Motor function is Movement of the eyeball
Abducens
A
Cranial Nerve VII; Mixed; Sensory portions arises from taste buds and functions as muscle sense and taste; Motor portion arises from the pons and functions facial expression and secretion of saliva and tears
Facial
F
Cranial NerveVIII;mixed; mainly sensory; Sensory functions are equilibrium, hair cells, hearing; Motor functions mechanical response to sound
Vestibulocochlear
V
Cranial Nerve IX; mixed; Sensory functions are taste and somatic sensations of tounge swallowing, blood pressure, monitoring oxygen and CO2 in blood; Motor functions are elevates the pharynx during swallowing and speech and stimulates secretion of saliva
Glossopharyngeal
G
Cranial Nerve X; mixed Sensory function is taste and somatic sensations of the epiglottis and pharnyx; Motor functions are Swallowing, coughing, and voice production
Vagus
V
Cranial Nerve XI; Motor consists of cranial portion and spinal portion; cranial portion mediates swallowing movements and spinal portion mediates movement of head and shoulders.

Cranial Nerve XII; mixed mainly motor; Motor function is movement of tounge during speech and swallowing; Sensory is muscle sense
Spinal Accessory
Hypoglossal
S,H