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34 Cards in this Set

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anatomy
the study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another
physiology
the study of the function of the body's structural machinery
gross or macroscopic anatomy
study of large body structures visable to the naked eye

ex. heart, lungs, kidneys
microscopic anatomy

*cytology
*histology
structures too small to be seen with the naked eye

*cytology - cell of the body
*histology - study of tissues
developmental anatomy
structural changes throughout life & before birth
regional anatomy
all structures in one part of the body

ex. abdomen, leg
systemic anatomy
gross antomy of the body studied by system

ex. cardiovascular system - heart & blood vessels of entire body
surface anatomy
study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
pathological anatomy
study of structural changes caused by disease
radiographic anatomy
study of internal stuctures visualized by X ray
molecular biology
study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level
principle of complementarity
*function always reflects structure
*what a structure can do depends on its specific form
renal physiology
kidney function
neurophysiology
workings of the nervous system
cardiovascular physiology
operation of the heart and blood vessels
levels of structural organization
1. chemical level - atoms combine to form molecules
2. cellular level - cells are made up of molecules
3. tissue level - tissues consist of similar types of cells
4. organ level - organs are made up of different types of tissues
5. organ system level - organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely
6. organismal level - the human organism is made up of many organ systems
anatomical position
body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body
superior (cranial)
toward the head end (above)

ex. the head is superior to the abdomen
inferior (caudal)
away from the head end (below)

ex. the navel is inferior to the chin
anterior (ventral)
toward the front of the body

ex. the breastbone is anterior to the spine
posterior (dorsal)
toward the back of the body

ex. the heart is posterior to the breastbone
medial
toward the midline of the body; on the inner side of

ex. the heart is medial to the arm
lateral
away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of

ex. the arms are lateral to the chest
intermediate
between a more medial and lateral structure

ex. the collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder
proximal
closer to the orgin of the body part (point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk)

ex. the elbow is proximal to the wrist
distal
farther from the orgin of the body part (the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk)

ex. the knee is distal to the thigh
superficial (external)
toward the body surface

ex. the skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
deep (internal)
away from the body surface

ex. the lungs are deep to the skin
*sagittal plane

*midsagittal or medial
*divides the body into right and left parts

*sagittal plane that lies on the midline
frontal (coronal) plane
divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse or horizontal (cross section) plane
divides the body into superior and inferior parts
oblique section
cuts made diagonally
dorsal cavity
*protects the nervous system

*2 subdivisions
-cranial cavity = in the skull, encases the brain
-vertebral cavity = or spinal cavity, runs w/n vertebral column, encloses spinal cord
ventral body cavity
*2 subdivisions
-thoracic cavity = surrounded by ribs and muscles of chest (diaphragm b/w)
- abdominopelvic cavity = consists of abdominal ( stomach, intestines, spleen, liver)and pelvic cavity (bladder, reproductive organs, rectum)