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50 Cards in this Set

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The vertebral column is composed of individual bones called the _
vertebrae
each vertebrae consists of:
- solid cylindrical body called the _ which encloses the _
- _ arch (enclosing the spinal cord)
- _ arch (enclosing the blood vessels)
- centrum, notochord
- neural
- hemal
between each vertebrae are compressive cushions called _
intervertebral disks
early vertebrates had poorly developed vertebrae with a very rigid _
notochord
in mammals the notochord only persists in the intervertebral disks as the _
nucleus pulposus
The head represents the concentration of _ in the anterior portion of animals
sensory receptors
the head required the additional evolution of a _ to manage these sensory inputs
central nervous system
The evolution of vertebrates is hypothesized to be a response to the increasingly active lifestyles of organisms and follows 3 stages:
1. prevertebrates
2. Agnathan
3. Gnathostome
Defination of:
1.Prevertebrates
2.Agnathan
3.Gnathostome
1.filter feeder
2.muscular pharyngeal pump
3.jaws
prevertebrates were:
1. _ fish
2. _ feeders
3. _ around the mouth was the only means of generating a current of water/food into the mouth.
1.jawless
2.filter
3.cilia
Agnathan:
1. _ fish
2. _ feeders (mud grubbers)
3. had _
1. jawless fish
2. deposit
3. muscular pharyngeal pumps
the muscular pharyngeal pump:
1. muscles encircle the _
2. pharyngeal bars comprised of _
muscles _ water out
muscles _ / cartilage "bounces
back" - water in
1. pharynx
2. cartilage, constrict, relax
Gnathostome:
1. _ fish
2. _ feeders "preadtors"
3. _ than agnathans
1. jawed
2. raptorial
3. larger
Living agnathans:
_ - round mouth
_ - class of Hagfish
_ - class of Lamprey
Cycolstome
Myxinoidea
Pteromyzontida
_: between Agnathans and gnathostomes
Conodonts
Conodonts:
_ like feeding apparatus (bony)
_ and myomeres for movement
_ which were controlled by extrinsic
muscles
All properities would suggest that these animals were _
spear
notochord
large eyes
predators
Gnathostomes:
_ (class of fossil gnathostomes)
_ (cartilaginous fish)
_ (bony fish)
Placoderms
Chondrichthyes
Teleostomi
Placoderms - "_"
- all had jaws
- most were encased in heavy _ plates
- no true vertebrae (ossified _)
- _ dwellers (swam on the bottom)
- no living relatives closely related
Armored fish
armor
synareval
benthic
Chondrichthyes: _/_
- cartilaginous fish (_ bone)
- _ scales on their surface (cone shaped)
- _ than water (sink)
- large livers with _
- embryos can be carried for nearly _
sharks/rays
no
placoid
denser
bouyant oil
2 years
Chondrichthyes divided into 2 subclasses:
1. _ (sharks and rays)
2. _ (chimaeras)
1. Elasmobranchs
2. Holocephalans
Teleostomi:
- _ (sister group to the bony fish)
- _ (bony fish)
- Tetrapos forerunners
Aconthodians
Teleosts
Aconthodians: "_"
Ancient fish between _ and _
spiny form
Chondrichthyes, Teleosts
Osteichthyes: “_”
- _ living vertebrates fall into this group.
Evolved a _ for buoyancy.
boney fish
most
swim bladder
_: “Bony fish”
Divided into 2 subclasses:
- _ “ray finned fish”
Palaeomisciformes – superorder
of “_”
Neopterygii “ _ ray finned fish”
- _
Osteichthyes
Actinopterygii
ancient
modern
Sarcopterygeii
Sarcopterygii- "_"
- fins are placed at the end of short appendages with _
-These were from maneuvering in _ or muddy lake beds.
- these are the forerunners of the _
fleshy finned fish
internal bony structures
shallow mud
tetrapods
Sarcopterygeii Divided into 3 groups:
1.
2.
3.
1. Coelocanths
2. Rhipidistians
3. Dipnoi
*need to complete*
Coelocanths - only a single surviving member. Deep ocean dwellers.
_ - (superorder)
_ - (Division)
Cross...
Coela...
Rhipidistians – fossil tetrapod ancestors.
_ - (superorder)
_ - (Division)
Crossopterygii
Rhidphidistia
__________ – “lungfish”. Posses paired lungs for survival in low water conditions.
Dipnoi
Tetrapods: “_”
-include terrestrial, amphibious, aquatic, and flying groups.
-All have ___________, muscular limbs with jointed distal appendages
Can be divided into 3 groups:
1. 2. 3.
4 footed
chiridia
1. Labyrinthodonts
2. Amphibia
3. Anthracosaurs
_ – class of ancient tetrapods.
- aquatic juveniles, terrestrial adults
- Named for complex _ structure.
Labyrinthodonts
tooth
Amphibia
- _ – subclass of ancient amphibians, lacking labyrinthodont teeth.
- _ – subclass of modern amphibians
a. respire through _
b. _ teeth (base and tip are sutured)
Lepospondyls
Lissamphiabia
skin
pedicellate
Amphibia
3 orders:
1. _ - salamanders
2. _ - frogs and toads
3. _ - caceilians
1. Urodela
2. Salienta
3. Gymnophiona
_ – forerunners of the amniotes
Anthracosaurs
Amniotes: embryos wrapped in _ (amnion)
Divided into 2 cladistic groups (based on _ structure):
_ – reptiles, birds and dinosaurs
_ - mammals and therapsids
membranes
skull
sauropsidia
synapsida
_ – several patterns of temporal fenestrations.
_ skull – no fenestrae
_ skull – 2 temporal fenestrae
_ skull – 1 fenestra (lost 1 from the diapsid skull pattern).
Sauropsida
anapsid
diapsid
synapsid
Reptiles (class reptilian):
_ – subclass in which turtles are the
only survivors.
_ – all other reptiles (modern).
parareptilia
eureptilia
Birds: class Aves
- _ most abundant group of vertebrates- descendants of _ (archaeopteryx)
-Only birds, (bats and pterosaurs) evolved the capacity to “_”.
-Hollow bones and _ for flight.
- _ – sail back reptile
- _ – mammal-like reptiles
second, reptiles
fly
wings
plycosaurs
therapsids
Birds: class _
Divided into 2 groups:
- _ – small size with “slicing teeth”.
- mammals – class of only animals with
1. _
2. _ glands
Aves
Cynodonts
1. hair
2. mammary glands
Mammals :
- _ – egg laying mammals. Duckbill platypus, spiny anteater.
- _ – young finish development inside a “pouch”.
- _ – young develop fully internally nourish through the placenta.
Monotremes
Marsupials
Placentals
anteaters
Edentata
moles
Insectivora
bats
Chiroptera
rabbits
Lagomorpha
mice, rats
Rodentia
cats, dogs
Carnivora
pigs, deer ruminants
Artdactyla
elephants
Proboscidea
whales, dolphins
Cetacea
Primates :
Family _ – chimps, gorillas
Family _ - humans
pongidae
hominidae