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53 Cards in this Set

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What are the blood functions?
Distribution(traspotation), Regulation, and Defense
What type of tissue is blood?
Connective
What are the components of blood?
RBC, WBC, Platelets and Plasma
Blood Characteristics
vary with body size, electrolyte, fat content
38 degrees C
pH 7.35-7.45
5.2 quarts im males
5 million RBC
Blood Suspension
if blood stands it will separate, cells to bottom plasma on top
What are the percentages of RBC and plasma in the blood?
55% plasma
thin interface of WBC
45% RCB (HCT)
RBC Characteristics
biconcave, thin near centre, flexible, no nucleus, cannot reproduce, huge surface area
97% of the RBC is what
Hemoglobin
Hypoxia
prolonged oxygen deficiency of tissues
Anoxia
tissue total lack of oxygen, leads to tissue death=infarct
Cyanosis
visual symptom of hypoxia, bluish color to skin
HbS
abn sickle cell hemoglobin, cant compress in small vessles, stuck
Dietary Factors in Duodenum affecting RBC Production
Folic Acid and Vit B12- DNA synthesis
iron- hemoglobin synthesis
RBC Production in Marrow
Hemocytoblasts>>>proeyrthroblasts>>>>erythroblasts>>>normoblast>>>>reticulocytes>>>erythrocytes
Life Span of RBC
120 days
Control of RBC Production
trigger- O2 deficiency sensed by liver or kidney
ERYTHROPOIETIN released by kidney
Response- targets marrow to increase RBC production
Anemia
oxygen carrying capacity of blood is reduced by insufficient no of RBC
pernicious anemia
abscense of B12
hemorrhagic anemia
abnormal blood loss
aplastic anemia
marrow mysfunction
hemolytic anemia
excessive hemolysis, drugs, parasites, genetics
Decreased Hb
iron defeciency
Polycythemia
increase no of RBC, slow sluggish
RBC Destruction
rbc fragile with age
Jaundice
if liver circulation is damaged bilirubin is not removed as bile but carried away in blood
WBC Characteristics
body defense
positive chemotaxis
diapedesis
made from hemocytoblast
increase with infection
Neutrophil
largest population in WBC
phagocyte, esp bacteria and fungi
Eosinphil
increase in parasitic attack
increase in allergy attack
Basophil
heparin=anticoagulant
histamine for allergy attack
Lymphocyte
immunity
25-33% of WBC
made in marrow or lymphatic tissue
Monocyte
largest cell
large phagocyte
acts like macrophage in tissues
Platelets/Throbocytes
cell fragments
made from hemocytoblasts
initiate homeostasis when there is a broken blood vessle
clotting
Plasma
whole blood minus the cells
Serum
plasma minus clotting protiens
Plasma Analysis
Blood Gasses- O2 and CO2
Blood Electrolytes- Na
NPN NonProtein Nitrogen- amino acids, urea, uric acid--- rise in NPN can cause kidney problems
Plasma Proteins

Albumins
made in liver
maintain osmotic pressure in blood
blood buffer
Plasma Proteins

Clotting Problems
fibrogen
prothrombin
made in liver
Plasma Proteins

Globulins
there are alpha and beta- transport lipids
gamma- antibodies-- immunity
Blood Lipoproteins

VLDL
Very Low density lipoprotiens
transfer fat made in liver to fat tissue
Blood Lipoproteins

LDL
Low density lipoproteins
delivers cholesterol to cells
Blood Lipoproteins

HDL
High density lipoproteins
takes broken down chylomicrons to liver
Homeostasis
Stops bleeding in 3 steps
muscle in damaged vessle wall spasms
platlet plug- sticks to wall
clot- blood coagulation
Extrinsic Clotting
damaged tissue or vessles releases trigger-- tissue thromboplastic (TH)
series of reaction triggers Ca++ ions
Prothrombin activator changes prothrombin in blood to thrombin
Intrinsic Clotting
trigger blood contact with foreign surface
no tissue damage vessle is in tact
Hagman factor
Thrombus
stationary clot in unbroken vessle
Embolism
moving obstruction
Blood Typing
nameg by antigens--agglutinogens and glycoprotiens on surface of RBC
40 majors types
Type A
A antigens on RBC
anti-B proteisn on plasma
Type B
B antigens on RBC
anti-A proteins in plasma
Type AB
A and B antigens on RBC
nothing in plasma
universal receiver
Type O
no antigens on RBC
anti A and B in plasma
universal donor
most common
Transfusion Reaction
know the bloos type "blank" on RBC and "anti-blank" in plasma, possible clump
Rh Factor
agglutinogen same in human and rhesus monkey
“A” antigens; “Rh” antigens; anti-B agglutinins