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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
ventilation:
mechanical process that moves air in and out of lungs
external respiration
gas exchange be/w alveolar air and blod
internal respiration
gas exchange between blood and body tissues.
cellular respiration
enzymatic reactions in cells that result in the use of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide
organs of respiratory system: (8)
nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar sacs.
the respiratory passages serve to:
warm and humidify air, and filter out particles larger than 6 microns.
the nasal cavity lies:
between the base of the skull and the roof of the mouth.
the nasal cavity opens to the outside through:
two external nares, or nostrils.
the internal nares open into the
pharynx
the roof of the nasal cavity is formed by
the sphenoid and ethmoid bones
the floor of the nasal cavity consists of
hard palate anteriorly and soft palate posteriorly
the nasal cavity is lined with
mucous membranes containing cilia and glands.
the glandular secretions and cilia in the nasal cavity help:
keep the nasal passages clean.
paranasel sinuses are
air cavities in bones that connect to the nasal cavity
the sinuses :
reduce the weight of the skull and help to warm and humiify the air
rhinitis:
inflammation of nasal mucosa
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses.
the pharynx connects :
the mouth and the nasal cavity to the larynx and esophagus.
the 3 parts of the pharynx are:
nasopharynx (superior), oropharynx, and laryngopharynx (inferior)
pharynx is composed of:
skeletal muscle
the uvula and adenoids are the
pharyngeal tonsils
the uvula and adenoids lie
within the nasopharynx
thismoves superiorly during swallowing to prevent food from entering the nasal passages:
the uvula and soft palate
this destroys pathogens
adenoids
the eustachian tube is also known as the
auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube
the eustachian tube connects
middle ear cavity to the nasopharynx.
the eustachian tube opens periodically to
equalized middle ear pressure with atmospheric pressure
______________ is a common passage way for food and air
oropharynx
__________ and ____________ are in the oropharynx
palatine and lingual tonsils
the ____________ leads into the larynx and the esophagus
laryngopharynx
the laryngopharynx is a conduit of ________ and __________
air and food
the _____________ is the beginning of the respiratory tree.
larynx
larynx is contains... and is known as...
two vocal chords and is known as the voice box.
the opening b/w the two vocal cords is the __________
glottis
the larynx is made up of ....... held together by .......
9 cartilages, membranes and ligaments.
the ________________ is the largestcartilages and can be seen externally as the _________ also known as the _____________
thyroid cartilage, laryngeal prominance, adams apple.
the ____________ cartilage attaches to the vocal chords.
arytendoid.
epiglottis
a larngeal cartilage and covers the glottis during swallowing.
laryngitis is due to
inflamation of the vocal cords
the valsalva maneuver occurs when
somone closes the glottis and contracts the abdominal mucles.
the rise in pressure in the abdominal cavity during the valsalva maneurver aids in :
urination, defacation, and lifting heavy objects.
the left and rigth primary bronchi are formed from
the trachea when it bifurcates.
What are the three layers of the wall of the trachea?
mucosa (inner layer), the submucosa, and the adventitia (outer layer)
the inner layer of teh trachea is the mucosa, what is it made up of?
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with mucus secreting goblet cells.
the submucosa of the trachea, (the connective tissue layer), contains:
glands that secrete mucus.
What are the two compontents of the outer layer of the trachea, the adventitia:
hyaline cartilage internally and connective tissue externally.
the trachea is highly elastic and can contract and relax by action of the _________________
trachealis muscle.
heimlich manuver
compression of the thoracic and abdominal cavities to remove an object from the tracheal opening.
the conducting zone includes:
all of the structures from the nose through the terminal bronchioles
within the bronchiole tree includes
the primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi and smaller bronchioles.
the bronchi have _______ for support while the bronchioles have ______________ for support
cartilage.... elastic connectve tissue fibers.
bronchioles have a _____________ that permits them to constrict or dilate
heavy layer of circular muscle.
the respiratory zone has
respiratory bronchioles with alveolar like outpocketings.
the alveolar sacs in the respiratory zone occur at
the ends of the respiratroy bronchioles
Type I-alveolar cells are:
the large saccular cells that make up the wall of the alveolus.
where do the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange with the blood?
at the type I-alveolar cells.
Type II alveolar cells
line the alveoli and produce surfactant.
alveolar macrophages
phagocytize foreign materials that get into the alveoli.
the thoracic cavity houses
the heart and the lungs.
what is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm?
thoracic cavity
what are the two membranes that surround the lungs?
visceral pleura and parietal pluera.
the visceral pleura is waht and lies where
a membrane that surrounds the lungs, it lies next to the lungs.
what is the parietal pleura and where does it lie?
it is a membrane that surrounds the lungs and lies next to the thoracic wall.
what is the intraplueral space?
a potential space b/w the two pleural membranes . if thoracic wall is punctured it becomes a real space.
pressure of intrapleural space is always
below atmospheric pressure (a negative pressure). this is true during inhalation and exhalation.
Pleurisy
inflammation of the pleural membranes. causes membranes to become dry or excess fluid maya ccumulate in the pleural cavity.