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85 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
secreted by the pancreas and digests starch.
What is a product of starch digestion?
maltose, maltriose, small oligosaccharides.
secreted by the pancreas, digests starch
Products of starch digestion?
Maltose, maltriose and small oligosacchrides.
Brush border enzyme
Enzyme produced in the small intestine that is built into the structure of the cell membrane of epithelial cells.
What are 3 types of brush border enzymes?
maltase, sucrase, lactase
Three brush border enzymes are _________.
What are dissacharidases?
enzymes that digest three disaccharides to monsaccharides.
What is maltase and what does it do?
Its a brush border enzyme that digests maltose to two glucose units.
What is sucrase and what does it do?
its a brush border enzyme that digests sucrose into one glucose and one fructose unit.
What is lactase and what does it do?
it is a brush border enzyme that digest lactose into one unit glucose and one unit galactose.
What 3 things digest polypeptides into small peptides?
Pancreatic trypsin, chymotripsin, and elastase.
What is not free in the chyme of the intestine?
Brush border enzymes
enzymes that attack the interior of the polypeptide.
Pancreatic carboxypeptidase
digests polypeptides by removing one amino acid at a time from the carboxy end of the polypeptide.
Small intestine aminopeptidases:
digests polypeptides by removing one amino acid at a time from the amino end of a polypeptide.
Aminopeptidase is ....
brush border enzyme
amimopeptidase together with carboxypeptidase are known as...
These four things are secreted in an inactive form by the pancreas:
carboxypeptidase, chymotrypsin, elastase, and trypsin
trypsin is activated by
a brush border enzyme in the small intestine that activates trypsin
After being activated by enterokinase, trypsin then activates...
chymotrypsin, elastase and carboxypeptidase.
These are not digested until they are taken up by the epithelial cells.
dipeptides and tripeptides
dipeptides and tripeptides are digested by ...
dipeptidases and tripeptidases.
the digestion of dipeptides and tripeptides by di and tripeptidases is _________.
Newborn babies can absorb....
undigested proteins
What is an example of and undigested protein that babies can absorb into the blood?
mothers antibodies in milk
Why cant adults absorb undigested proteins into the blood?
b/c it would trigger an imune response
What is bile?
bile pigments plus bile salts
What are bile salts?
degraded products of cholesterol
bile salts from the ball bladder...
emulsify fats
what does emulsification of fats do?
increses the surface area of the fats for enzymatic digestion.
What does pancreatic lipase do?
digests triglycerides into fatty acids and monglycerides?
What does pancreatic lipase A do?
digests phospholipids.
Give an example of a phospholipid that pancreatic phospholipase A digests?
lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) into fatty acids and lysolecithin.
Gastrin is secreted by:
the stomach cells into the blood in response to the presenceof polypeptides in the stomach.
Gastrin circulates ...
in the blood and returns to the stomach
Gastrin stimulates
the secretion of pepsinogen and HCL
What are 4 hormones that regulate digestion?
gastrin, secretin, cholecytokinin, enterogastrone
secretin is secreted:
by small intestine cells into the bloodin response to HCL in the duodenum.
secretin stimulates
the pancrease to release sodium bicarbonate in the blood flowing through the pancreas.
sodium bicarbonate is transported...
by a duct to the duodenum where it neutralizes the acid.
cholecystokinin is released by
small intestine cells into the blood in response to the presence of fats and protiens in the duodenum.
cholecystokinin in blood circulates thru..
the gall bladder and pancreas
cholecystokinin stimulates..
contractions of the gall bladder to release bile. Also stimulates pancreas to release all of its enzymes
enterogastrone is released by
cells of the small intestine into theblood in response to large amounts of fat in the duodenum
enterogastrone circulates in the blood to
the circulation of entergastrone in the blood to the stomach inhibits:
stomach emptying allowing more time for fat digestion ot occur in the small intestine.
Liver manufactures and secretes:
two major components of bile
bile pigments and bile salts
what are bile pigments:
degraded products of heme.
what are the two bile pigments?
bilirubin and urobilinogen
what can biliruben do in certain pathological conditions?
build up in the blood and cause yellowing of the skin
what is jaundice?
build up of bilirubin in the blood causing yellowing of the skin
what are bile salts?
metabolites of cholesterol
what do bile salts do in digestion?
emulsify fats
what detoxifies poisons and drugs that enter the body?
the liver inactivates _________ and metabolizes ________.
hormones, alcohol
the liver makes urea _______
uric acid
the liver is very active in _______________
carbohydrate metabolism.
Sometimes the liver will secrete glucose into the blood that is made by _____________ or _________
gluconeogenisis, glycogenolysis
synthesizing and storing of glycogen by the liver
what are the clotting factors that the liver manufactures?
1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
2 other things liver makes:
plasma protein albumins, and alpha and beta globulins
the albumins account for most of the:
plasma colloidal osmotic pressure
the alpha and beta globulins have, as one of their functions:
the transport of lipid soluble molecules.
what 3 tings are specialized for the absorption of certain nutrients?
duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
microscopic finger like projections on the duodenum jejunum and ileum
foldd cell membranes on epithelial cells of duodenum jejunum and illeum
villi and microvilli are also termed:
brush border
purpose of villi and microvilli
to greatly increase surface area for absorption
the villi are supplied iwth:
capillaries and also lymphatic vessels
the lymphatic vessels on the villi are also called
three things that are totally asorbed by active transport and secreted into blood capillaries.
monosaccharides, amino acids and woter soluble vitamins.
some water and electrolytes are absorbed where
into the blood in the small intestine
this absorption of end products occurs by a very unusual mechanism
fat digestion
these 3 things are absorbed by epithelial cells and converted back to triglycerides and phospholipids in fat digestion
fatty acids, monoglycerides and lysolecithin.
fatty acids, monoglycerides adn lysolecithin are absorbed by _________ and converted back to ___________ and ___________.
epithelial cells, triglycerides, phospholipids
resynthesized lipids of fat digestion that are coated with proteins.
chylomicrons are secreted by __________ into the _______________.
exocytosis, lymph lacteals
chylomicrons are too large to get through ____________.
capilary walls.
the large intestine absorbs large amounts of _____________ and ___________
water and electrolytes
large intestion harbers _________ such as ________________.
bacteria, e. coli
bacteria synthesize some _________, such as _____________
vitamins, vitamin k
feces is composed of:
undigested plant fibers, bile pigments, and bacteria.