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140 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What drug blocks the sodium-potassium pump?
Oaubain
Which neural circuit involves sensory neuron & motor neurons?
Reflex arc
Which neural circuit has several neurons leading into one?
converging circuit
Which neural circuit has a single neuron which controls a larger population of neurons?
diverging circuit
Which neural circuit has a single input that produces lots of output?
reverberating
Which neural circuit controls breathing?
reverberating circuit
Which neural circuit is responsible for the interpration of the sensory stimuli?
converging circuit
Which neural circuit concentrates the input?
converging circuit
Which neural circuit is responsible for motor & sensory systems?
diverging
Which neural circuit is responsible for motor activities?
reverberating circuit
Which drug blocks acetyulcholine bonding sites on skeletal muscle cells?
curare
What drug is used for insecticides & some nerve gases?
Organophosphates
What drug interferes with cholineseterase & keeps acetylcholine at receptor sites?
Organophosphates
What drug is given to soldiers who suffer from nerve gas poisoning?
Atropine
What 2 drugs are similar in that they both block acetylcholine from binding to receptor?
Curare & Atropine
What drug contradicts what Organophosphates do?
Atropine
What drug works by blocking inhibitory neurotransmitters in the spinal cord?
Strychnine
What 2 drugs cause spastic paralysis?
Organophosphates, Strychnine
What toxin is caused by venomous fish?
tetrodotoxin
________ is an electrical differnce across a memebrane?
potential
The cell membrane is composed of a _______ layer?
bilipid
The cell membrane is _______ permeable, meaning what?
selectively permeable, so it can open & close the channels.
What is the electrical difference b/w the inside & outside of membrane when the neuron is at rest?
resting potential
What is the electrical difference number in millivolts at resting potential?
-70 millivolts
What arises from the differences in concentration of Na+ & K+.
resting potential
What channels are always open?
leak channels
What channels are associated with action potential?
Voltage gated Na+ channels
What channels open in response to the flow of electrical current?
voltage gated Na+ channels
What are the 3 different states of voltage gated Na+ channels?
1)closed (ready)
2)open
3)closed(inactive)
What is the name of the state in a voltage gated Na+ channel when a cell is at rest but the gates are closed but capable of being opened?
closed (ready)
What is the name of the voltage-gated state when the membrane allows Na+ to diffuse through?
open
What is the strength of electrical current that triggers the Na+ to open?
threshold
What is the length of time it takes for the Na+ channel to go through the closed, open & closed cycle?
refractory period
How long is the refractory period?
2.5 milliseconds
What restores the Na/K balance in a voltage gated Na+ channel?
sodium-potassium pump
What is found in the voltage-gated channel membrane that is an active transport enzyme?
sodium-potassium pump
How much does the Sodium-potassium pump in/ou?
3 Na+ OUT
2 K+ IN

per ATP
What are the 2 factors that affect the speed of action potential?
diameter, myelin sheath
What about the diameter affects action potential?
GREATER diameter, FASTER action potential
What about the myelin sheath affects action potential?
THICKER sheath, FASTER action potential
What is the speed range of action potential?
2-300mph
Do action potentials follow the all-or-none rule?
yes
What is the method in which action potentials travel in myelinated axons?
saltatory conduction
What is the name of when action potential jumps from one node of ranvier to another?
saltatory conduction
What has chemical gated channels?
synaptic potentialh
What channel opens in response to the attachment of neurotransmitters to the receptor site?
synaptic potential
As the neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft & attaches to the receptor, what is that called?
synaptic delay
How long is the synaptic delay?
~.5 msec
Are synaptic potentials all-or-nothing?
no
How long does neurotransmitter inactivation last?
~20msec
What restores the balance in the cell of a synaptic potential?
sodium-potassium pump
Where does the synaptic potential occur?
dendritic zone
Action potential occurs when what voltage exceeds what?
the threshold
What 2 ways are there to exceed the threshold?
temporal summation & spacial summation
what is the rapid, repeated release of neurotransmitters at a single synapse such that you exceed the threshold & produce action potential?
temporal summation
What is the simultaneous release of neurotransmitters at 2 or more synapses at the dendritic zone?
spacial summation
which summation occurs at the dendritic zone?
spacial
which summation occurs at the axon hillcock?
temporal
what is the name of a nuerotransmitter that generates action potential?
excitatory neurotransmitter
What is the name of a neurotransmitter that shifts the resting potential down w/o changing the threshold?
inhibitatory neurotransmitter
What is the name of a neurotransmitter that prevents the cell from producing an action potential?
inhibitory neurotransmitter
Excitatory/Inhibitory neurotransmitters depolarize.
excitatory
Which neurotransmitters work by opening either Na+ or Ca+ channels?
excitatory neurotransmitters
Which neurotransmitters work by opening K+ or Cl- channels?
Inhibitory neurotransmitters
Excitatory/Inhibitory neurotransmitters hyperpolarize.
inhibitory
which neurotransmitters increase the size of the resting potential?
inhibitory neurotransmitters
Which nervous system includes the brain & spinal cord?
CNS
Which nervous system includes nerves & ganglia?
PNS
what is a bundle of axons?
nerves
What is a concentration of nerve cell bodies?
ganglia
Which nervous system deals w/conscious perception & voluntary movement?
somatic NS
Which nervous system deals w/unconscious perception & involuntary movement?
Autonomic NS
Somatic nervous system: deals with conscious/unconscious perception & voluntary/involuntary movement?
conscious, voluntary
what is a thick bundle of ectoderm that the nervous system develops from?
neural plate
What does the neural plate develop into?
neural tube
What forms sensory neurons, but is not the neural tube?
neural crest
Do neurons divide once matured?
no
What are the 3 types of neurons?
motor, sensory, association
What neurons are the output system for the CNS?
MOTOR
What neurons carry sensation from the CNS to PNS?
motor
What neurons are the input system for the CNS?
sensory
What neurons carry sensation from the PNS to CNS?
sensory
What neurons do not leave the CNS?
ASSOCIATION
what neurons form internal connections w/in the CNS?
association
What are the 4 regions of a neuron?
cell body, dendritic zone, axon, synapse
What part of the neuron is responsible for maintainence?
cell body
What part of the neuron is responsible for reception?
dendritic zone
What part of the neuron is responsible for conduction?
axon
What part of the neuron is responsible for transmission?
synapse
What is the name of a neuron w/a single process arising from the cell body?
unipolar neurons
What is the type of neuron that is used in a few olfactory receptors & certain neurons in the retina & cochlea?
bipolar neurons
What is the least common type of neuron in humans?
bipolar neuron
What type of neuron are most motor neurons & most association neurons?
multipolar neuron
What is type of neuron that has his own axon hillcock?
multipolar neuron
What type of neuron does not produce action potential?
anaxonal
What is the name of a group of cells that are not neurons but are derived from neural tissue?
neuroglia (glial cells)
What cells can divide & are responsible for support & maintainece w/in the CNS?
glial cells
90% of the cells in the brain are what?
glial cells
Do glial cells release action potential?
no
Do glial cells release neurotransmitters?
no
What neurons are the input system for the CNS?
sensory
What neurons carry sensation from the PNS to CNS?
sensory
What neurons do not leave the CNS?
ASSOCIATION
what neurons form internal connections w/in the CNS?
association
What are the 4 regions of a neuron?
cell body, dendritic zone, axon, synapse
What type of neurons deal with most senses?
unipolar
What is the neuron w/a single process arising from the cell body?
unipolar
What is the neuron body uncommon in humans?
bipolar
What is the the cell body of neurons that deal w/olfactory recpetors & certain neurons in retina & cochlea?
bipolar
What is the cell body of most motor neurons & most association neurons?
multipolar neuron
What is the neuron body that has an axon hillock?
multipolar hillock
What is the neuron that has no distinct axon?
anaxonal
What is the neuron that does not have action potential?
anaxonal
What are the group of cells that are not neurons but are derived from neural tissue?
glial cells
What are the cells that can divide and they are responsible for support & maintenance w/in the CNS?
glial cells
What are 90% of the cells in the brain?
glial cells
What are the 5 types of glial cells?
(SOME A)
schwann, oligodendrocyte, microglia, ependymal, astrocyte
What are the cells that make multiple wrappings of their cell membrane around axons in the PNS?
schwann
Which cells lay down a double layer of cell membrane?
schwann
What are the 2 layers that surround an axon?
myelin sheath, neurilemma
What is the outermost layer of an axon?
neurilemma
EAch cell can myelinate about ___mm?
1mm
Are schwann cells in contact w/each other?
yes
What are the indentattions at the points where the schwann cells come together?
nodes of ranvier
What are the only glial cells found in the PNS?
schwann cells
What are the differences b/w oligodendrocyte & schwann cells?
Glial is in PNS & Oli is in CNS. Oli has bare axon exposed at nodes of ranvier.
Do oligodendrocytes allow for regeneration?
no, b/c of their gaps on the nodes of ranvier
What is the most common type of glial cell?
astrocytes
What glial cells are not derived from neural tissue, but are responsible for support & maintenance?
microglia
What glial cells are phagocytes?
microglia
Which glial cells search for infectious organisms?
microglia
Which glial cells are derived from white blood cells?
microglia
Which glial cells form the lining in the ventricles of the brain?
epnedymal cells
What is the name of the structures that are concentration os fepnedymal cells w/very dense capillary beds?
choroid plexuses
What secretes a cerebrospinal fluid that fills the ventricles?
choroid plexuses
What type of glial cells form a thin layer around the entire CNS which acts a shorck absorber?
ependymal cells
Which type of glial cells forms an alternate communication system in the brain b/c it bypasses the blood brain barrier?
ependymal cells
Which glial cells form a scaffolding from which all other cells & neurons are suspended & held in place?
astrocyte
Which glial cells contribute to the blood brain barrier?
astrocyte
Which glial cells form a layer around the capillaries in the brain, (making them much more selectively permeable due to these sheaths now formed)?
astrocyte