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100 Cards in this Set

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The word anatomy is derived from Greek and means what?
“to cut up” or “to cut open.”
What is the simplest level of organization within the body?
The chemical level
What is the smallest unit of matter?
Atoms
What is a molecule?
Two or more atoms combime to form a molecule
WHat are examples of a molecule?
protein, a water molecule or a vitamin
What is a macromolecule?
LArger and more complex molecules such as dna and protein.
Large molecules join in specific ways to form what?
Cells
What are tissues?
Organizations of cells that perfrom specialized functions
how many organ systems are in the human body?
11
All body systems function _________ in a single living himan being.
interdependently
_________ tissues covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities
Epithelial tissue
ex. the inner lining of the digestive system
_____ tissue protects, supports and interconnects body parts and organ
Connective.
What are three types of connective tissue
Solid (such as bone) Liquid( such as blood) or intermediate(such as cartilage)
____ tissue produces Movement.
Muscle
Three types of muscle tissue is?
Skeletal muscle, Smooth, and cardiac
_____ tissue conducts impulses for internal communication
Nervous
WHat are examples of nervous tissue?
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
______ provides protection, regulates body temp, site of cutaneous, vitamin D , prevents water loss
Integumentary
_____ provides support and protection. Stores calcium and allows for body movement
Skeletal
Muscle generates _____ when muscles contract
heat
A regulatory system that controls body movement
Nervous
Helps control all other systems of the body
Nervous
Responsible for consciousness, intelligence and memory
nervous
Consist of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones
Endocrine
responsible for body and cellular growth, chemical levels and reproductive functions
endocrine
consists of a pump(the heart) that moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormons, nutrients, gases, and pick up waste products
Cardiovascular
WHat is lymph
Interstitial fluid
______ transports and filters lymph.
Lymphatic
____ responsible for exchange of gases( oxygen, and carbon dioxide) between blood and the air in lungs.
Respiratory
______Mechanically and chemically digest food materials.
Digestive
_____ absorbs nutrients, gets rid of waste products
Digestive
_____Filters the blood and removes waste products from the blood.
Urinary
_____ produces male sex cells(sperm) and male hormons.
Male reproductive system
_____ produces female sex cells and female hormones.
Female reproductive system
what is the anatomic position?
body position in which an individual stands upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor. Palms facing front.
A ____ is an imaginary surface that slices the body into specific sections.
Plane
What are the three major anatomic planes of reference?
coronal, transverse and sagittal
a ____ plane also called a frontal plane, is a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts.
Coronal plane
A _____ plane, also called a cross-sectional plane or horizontal plane, cuts perpendicularly along the long axis of the body or organ. seperating it into both superior(upper) and inferior(lower) parts.
Tranverse
A ___ plane or median plane extends through the body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves
Sagittal
correlative term means what?
opposite
Anterior is?
in front of
Posterior is?
In back of
Dorsal is?
At the back side of the human body
Ventral is?
At the belly side of the human body
superior is?
Toward the head of above
Inferior is?
toward the feet
Caudal is?
At the rear or tail end
Cranial is?
At the head end
Medial is?
Toward the midline of the body
Lateral is?
Away from the body
Deep is?
On the inside
Superficial is?
on the outside
_____ closest to point of attachment to trunk.
Proximal
______ Furthest from point of attachment to trunk
Distal
___ Includes the head, neck, and trunk.
Axial region
Our limbs or appendages, attach to the bodys axis and make up the ______
appendicular region
The ___ cavity is formed by the cranium and houses the brain
Cranial
A ____ canal is formed by the individual bones of the bertebral column and contains the spinal cord.
Vertebral
A ___ layer lines the internal surface of the body wall
PAriental
A ___ layer covers the external surface of organs within the cavity
Visceral
Between the pariental and visceral layers is a thin _____ cavity. containing film of serous fluid.
Serous cavity
the heart is enclosed by a two layed serous membrane called the ________.
Pericardium
the four quadrants are?
Right upper, left upper, RIght lower quadrant, LEft lower quadrant.
the study or cells is called
Cytology
one of the smallest cells in the body is?
red blood cells
The largest cell in the body is?
Oocyte
_____ the first two weeks starting with fertilization of the egg and the formation of the zygote.
Pre- Embryonic period
______ Includes the third through the end of the eight week.
Embryonic period
What happends during the embryonic period?
All major organ systems develop into redimentary versions of the adult structures.
_____ weeks 9 through 38.
Fetal
WHat happends in fetal period?
Growth is the main feature of this 30 week period of time.
______ is the process by which gametes(sperm and eggs) are produced.
Gametogenesis
Diploid has 23 chromosomes? TRUE OR FALSE?
False. THey have 23 pair of chromosomes.
A Haploid has 23 Chromosomes? T or F
True
_____ is a type of sex cell division that starts with a diploid parent cell and produces haploid daughter cells
Meiosis
____ starts with a diploid parent cell and results in two genetically identical diploid daughter cells.
Mitosis
A process called ____ ____ occurs in meiosis which allows an exchange in genetic material between paired chromosomes.
Crossing over
A paired chromosome is also known as?
Homologous
Crossing over results in what?
genetic diversity among gametes
The parents cells that produce haplod ooctyes through the process of meiosis are called?
OOgonia
Where are oogonia are located where?
Ovaries
the cell that receives very little cytoplasm is called?
a polar body
_____ - several layers of cuboidal cells
Corona radiata
_____ a clear layer of proteins between the ovum and the cells of the corona radiata
Zona Pellucida
The parent cells that produce haploid sperm through the process of meiosis are called?
Spermatogonia
Each spermatogonium divides by mitosis to produce two genetically identical cells is called?
Primary spermatocytes
How many cells is the body composed of approximately?
75 trillion cells
_______ matrix is a substance produced by the cells of a specific tissue and can contain protein fibers, salts, h2o and dissolved marcromolecules
Extracellular matrix
Where is the matrix located?
On the outside of cells
What are the four types of tissues?
Epithelial, muscle, nervous, and connective
All cells in your body belong to one of the four types of tissues. True or False
TRUE
Which tissue is this?
Cellular, polor, attached, avascular, innervated, high regeneration capacity
Epithelial tissue
Which tissue is this?
Diverse types, all contain cells, protein fibers, and ground substance
Connective tissue
Which tissue is this?
Contractile; receives stimulation from nervous system and /or endocrine system
Muscle tissue
What is the general functions on the epithelial tissue?
Covers surfaces, lines insides of organs and body cavities
What are the functions of connective tissue?
Protects, binds together, and supports organs
What are the functions of Muscle tissue?
Facilitates movement of skeleton or organ walls
The majority of glands are derived from which tissue?
Epithelial
Epithelial tissue possesses little to no extracellular matrix?
True or false
TRUE