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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the illecreal valve?
-spincter that is stronger than pyloric valve
What is the large intestine lined with?
-simple columnar cells (absorptin)
What does the large intestine absorb?
-electrocytes and water
What is the flow of chyme in the large intestine?
-begins at ileocecal valve (on the side of body)
-goes from cecum to ascending colon
-goes around to descending colon
-flows to sigmoid colon which then becomes the rectum
What is the cecum and what use of it is it to us?
-pouch at beginning of large intestines
-no true use of it to us
-produces enzymes that break down cellulose for animals
What is the appendix?
-vestible organ (useless)
-part of immune system (similar to tonsils)
-contains immune structures
Why do we have bacteria in intestines?
-we need them to help digest
-immune system maintains symbiotic relationship
-can be deadly if too many and out of control
Why does the appendix get removed?
-fecal matter gets in cecum and blocks appendix
-bacteria trapped in appendix cause inflammation
-swells til it bursts
-bacteria get into peritneal cavity (peritnealitis) and can cause death if untreated
What reflexes does the large intestine do?
What is the gastrocolic reflex?
-begins mass movement to empty ascending colon
What is the gastroileal reflex?
-moves material into cecum from illeum to clear for chyme to enter small intesinnes
-relaxes illececal valve
What doesn't the large intestine have?
-everything stomach and small intestines have except columnar cells for absorption and muscles
What is the defication reflex?
-starts when pressure receptors in rectum trigger defication in brain
-gives sensation to go to the bathroom
-relaxes internal spincter
What is the external anal spincter made of?
-skeletal muscle
-for control unless having diarrhea
What is diarrhea?
-occurs when something harmful enters intestines
-needs to remove it asap (explains why fecal matter is watery)
-can dehydrate
What are the haustrums?
-parts of large intestines that are divided
What are the three Haustrum muscle actions?
-haustrum churning
-mass movement
What does peristalsis of the large intestines do?
-to transport materials from one haustrum to another
What does the Haustrum churuning of the large intestines do?
-contracts muscles to bring as much H2O as possible to walls for absorption
What does mass movement of the large intestines do?
-forces chyme "downstream" in 1 action
-packs unusual material into sigmoid colon and rectum
What are epiploic appendages and what is convenient about them?
-bags of adipose cells
-source of energy for large intestines
Why type of muscles do the large intesines have?
-circular muscles
-longitudinal muscles
What is different about longitudinal muscles in large intestines than in other parts of the digestive system?
-actually bands or spindles called tenae coli
Where are the tenae coli located within the large intestines?
-anterior side
-posterior side
-lateral side
What happens when you hold in excretory matter within rectum for too long?
-begin to have really painful sensations with muscles holding in material
-may force brain to relax muscles if pain is too great
What muscles are used for excretion?
-internal/ external spincters
-abdominal compression (can't breath)
What is constipation?
-when you don't have enough water or mucus for lubrication of large intestines
-fecal matter gets stuck
-large intestines shut down
-need to lubricate manually
When do gastrocolic and gastroilial reflexes occur?
-around the same time
What does the gall bladder do?
-stores bile
-uses smooth muscles to pumo it out
What do hepatic ducts do?
-brings enzymes and refined materials from liver to small intestines
What is the major duodenal pailla?
-spincter that releases bile into duodenum
What happens when dudenal pailla is closed?
-bile backs up to gallbladder
How are gallstones removed?
-removed by microscopic surgery
-just 3 small holes
What are gallstones?
-condensations of either cholesterol or calcium and bile salts
-can cause extreme pain if untreated
What is the liver (size orient)?
-largest organ in the body
What does the liver produce?
-produces bile
-produces plasma proteins (for clotting, etc
-produces hundreds of enzymes for breaking down molecules
What does the liver detect?
-filters blood to detect toxic molecules then detoxifies
What does the liver refine?
-refines raw nutrients for absorption into intestines (lipids, etc)
What does the liver store?
-storage material of glucose when too much is in blood
What are the four lobes of the liver?
What runs behind the liver?
-Veva cava
What is the hepatic lobule?
-alot in liver
-contains 3 vessels at each corner
-vessels drain into central vein at center
What are the three vessels of the hepatic lobule?
-Hepatic portal triads
-hepatic artery
-hepatic portal vein
-branch of bile duct
What does the hepatic artery contain?
-high in oxygen
-refined nutrients
-raw lipids
-some metabolic wastes
What does the hepatic portal vein contain?
-high in CO2
-some wastes
-raw nutrients directly from small intestines
What does the branch of the bile duct transport?
-transports bile out of liver back to gall bladder or duodenum
What are hepatocytes?
-liver cells
-highly vascularized
-do the refining
-What do central veins do? What is in it?
-drains globule
-oxygen deprived
-got refined nutrients converted by hepatocytes
What do hepatic sinusoids contain?
-kupler cells
What are kupler cells?
-phagocytic cells that remove harmful materials that shouldn't be there
What can alcohol do to the liver?
-alcohol can harm the liver just as tobacco can with the lungs
What is different of the liver with the lungs when damaged?
-cells can regenerate over time if patient stops harming it
Where is the pancreas located?
-behind stomach
Why is the pancreas known as a dual organ?
-acts as an exocrine and endocrine gland
What is the exocrine function of pancreas?
-produces digestive enzymes
-enzymes go to duodenum using ducts and enter through dudenal papilla (spincter)
What is the accessory duct used for?
-as a saftey device if main pancreatic duct was damaged or blocked
What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?
-produces the hormones: insulin and glucogon
What are acinar cells?
-part of acinar island
-either alpha or beta cells
What do alpha cells produce?
What do beta cells produce?
What does insulin do?
-lowers blood/glucose level
What does glucogen do?
-raises blood/glucose level
What is special about both hormones?
-both work sychronicqally with each other
What happens when you eat food?
-beta cells produce insulin
What happens when you use too much glucose from running from danger?
-alpha cells produce glucogon that breaks down glycogen
What's wrong with too little glucose?
-body doesn't function
What's wrong with too much glucose?
-can rot blood cells
What is pancreatic cancer?
-worst cancer
-hard to remove with surgery (not alot of connective tissue)
-chemotherpy is difficult (cells are too close together)
-radiation is difficult (behind stomach and other organs)