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80 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the effects of smoking on goblet cells and why?
-become sick, weaken and eventually die
-people inahle more nicotine than the mucus can trap
-nicotine can then get through
What is the effect of smoking on psudociliated colunar cells, what does this mean, what do they get replaced by?
-become weak and eventually die
-don't have cells that move mucus
-psudostratefied squamous cells (like skin cells)
What happens when you lose mucus producing cells from smoking?
-smoke can reach aveoli
What happens when smoke reaches the aveoli?
-particles get attacked by macrophages
-eventually get overrun and die
What's the effect of smoking on type 2 aveoli cells? What disease does this cause?
-get damaged and don't produce surfactant and die
-emphazema
-can cause genetic change to cells that survive
-lung cancer
What is emphazima?
-after aveolar cells get weakened enough for no gas exhange
-cells that line capillaries are killed next
-bleeding occurs and clog up (cough up blood)
-no blood supply, no fibroblasts
How do people who don't smoke get lung cancer?
-2nd hand smoke
-genetic in family
-by chance (rare)
What is nicotine toxicity?
-long term smokers get problems
-varicose veins
-adbominal problems
-etc.
-nicotine gets absorbed in bloodstream and affects entire body
What is the digestive system?
-mechanical and chemical breakdown of what you ingested
-main rogans form GI tract (stomach, intestines)
What is the purpose of the digestive system?
-acquiring fuel for your cells
-what you use gets absorbed
-what you don't use gets removed
What is Bolus?
-food after being chewed up
What do the superior and inferior labiral frenulum hold together? What problems could occur with them?
-lips with oral cavity
-speech problems (need to be clipped)
What is the purpose of the liver?
-produces bile for gallbladder
-refines molecules into a useable form
What does the gallbladder do?
-emulsifies fat with bile
-"opens it up"
What are the tonsils a part of?
-immune system
What are the effects of smoking on goblet cells and why?
-become sick, weaken and eventually die
-people inahle more nicotine than the mucus can trap
-nicotine can then get through
What is the effect of smoking on psudociliated colunar cells, what does this mean, what do they get replaced by?
-become weak and eventually die
-don't have cells that move mucus
-psudostratefied squamous cells (like skin cells)
What happens when you lose mucus producing cells from smoking?
-smoke can reach aveoli
What happens when smoke reaches the aveoli?
-particles get attacked by macrophages
-eventually get overrun and die
What's the effect of smoking on type 2 aveoli cells? What disease does this cause?
-get damaged and don't produce surfactant and die
-emphazema
-can cause genetic change to cells that survive
-lung cancer
What is emphazima?
-after aveolar cells get weakened enough for no gas exhange
-cells that line capillaries are killed next
-bleeding occurs and clog up (cough up blood)
-no blood supply, no fibroblasts
How do people who don't smoke get lung cancer?
-2nd hand smoke
-genetic in family
-by chance (rare)
What is nicotine toxicity?
-long term smokers get problems
-varicose veins
-adbominal problems
-etc.
-nicotine gets absorbed in bloodstream and affects entire body
What is the digestive system?
-mechanical and chemical breakdown of what you ingested
-main rogans form GI tract (stomach, intestines)
What is the purpose of the digestive system?
-acquiring fuel for your cells
-what you use gets absorbed
-what you don't use gets removed
What is Bolus?
-food after being chewed up
What do the superior and inferior labiral frenulum hold together? What problems could occur with them?
-lips with oral cavity
-speech problems (need to be clipped)
What is the purpose of the liver?
-produces bile for gallbladder
-refines molecules into a useable form
What does the gallbladder do?
-emulsifies fat with bile
-"opens it up"
What are the tonsils a part of?
-immune system
What is amylase?
-Saliva that breaks down large molecules (starches) and has anti-bacterial molecules
What is the crown made of and where is it located on tooth?
-made of enamel
-located on top of tooth
What is dentin and where is it located in the tooth?
-harder than enamel
-located inferior to crown
What is the root canal and where is it located in the tooth?
-contains nerves and blood vessels
-located within dentin
How are cavities formed?
-bacteria eats away at crown
What do the nerves in teeth do for us?
-tells us when we need to get to the dentist due to bacteria getting into tooth
What do the gingira do?
-seals gums tight against teeth
What is the root canal procedure?
-when bacteria gets into tooth, dentist drills adn removes polarized nerve
What are molecules that breakdown in the digestive system and what do they breakdown?
-amylase (large molecules)
-protease (proteins)
-nucleolase (nucleic acids)
-liptase (lipids)
What is bile made from?
-cholesterol
What is a coloskopy?
-investigate colon w/ cameras for polyps that can become cancerous
What are the small intestines held to and by?
-posterior body wall
-by mesenterys (nerves and blood supply of intestines)
What is the colon held up by?
-by the mesocolon
What is the stomach held by?
-lesser omentum
What does the greater omentum do?
-hangs down over organs as a protective barrier
-holds adipose tissue
-when filled, extra fat fills peritoneal cavity (viseral fat)
What is the esophagus?
-tube from pharnyx to stomach
What epithelial layer is the esophagus made of?
-stratefied squamous cells
What is the superior 1/3 of the esophagus made of?
-skeletal muscle
What is the inferior 2/3 of the esophagus made of?
-circular and longitudinal muscles
-smooth muscle
What are there voluntary and involuntary muscles of the esophagus?
-so when you start swallowing, you finish
-you can't breath while you swallow
Where does the esophagus connect to the stomach? Why?
-side of stomach
-top bulge (fundus)can hold pressure caused by moving
Why would people not be able to swallow? Who would have this?
-neurological connection are malfunctioned
-elderly and mentally retarded
What is a Hiatal hernia?
-diaphram teared by esophagus
-can be from totally insignificant with little discomfort to major issues
-can cut off blood supply to stomach and lead to death
What is peristalisis is digestion?
-movement of bolus down the GI tract
What is segementation in digestion?
-mechanical breakdown of bolus and chyme
-by back and forth motions in the small intestines
What is chyme?
-the product of broken down bolus by the swish-swoshing motion of the stomach
What are oblique muscles of the stomach used for?
-to prevent forward movement
Why is there an oblique layer in the stomach?
-to absorb food and drugs
-to store food until intestine needs it
Why are there gastric folds within the internal walls of the stomach?
-so that the stomach can expand
-also called rugae
Where is the Mucosa layer of the GI tract located, what tissue is it made of, and what does it do?
-external to lumen
-made of epithelial tissue
-made of loose connective tissue (lamina propria)
-the thin muscle layer causes circular folds (controlld by muscularis mucosae)
What is the purpose of circular folds?
-to increase surface area and nutrient absorption
Where is the Submucosa layer or the GI tract located, what does it contain, what does it do?
-external to mucosa
-loaded with blood vessels
-major blood supply for absorption
-houses submucosal nerve plexus to turn on and off digestive system (post sypathetic/parasympathetic ganglionic neurons)
What does the muscularis layer of the GI tract contain?
-contains both circular and longitudinal muscles (for movement of food)
-contains myenteric plexus which relax and contract muscles (sympathetic/ parasympathetic post ganglionic neurons)
Where is the serosa layer of the GI tract located, what is it made of, what membrane is it, and what does it produce?
-most outermost layer
-loose connective tissue
-visceral membrane
-produces serous fluid
What is the purpose of segementation?
-increases efficency of digestion and absorption
What is the purpose of peristalsis?
-to have food travel from esophagus to anus
What happens when you eat too much?
-expands and pushes pressue on liver, diaphram, and spleen
-may feel short of breath
What enzymes does the stomach produce?
-mucin
-alkaline mucin
-intrinsic factor
-pepsinogen
-HCl- PH of 1
-gastin
What do surface mucous cells produce in the stomach?
-secretes mucin
What is the purpose of mucin?
-to prevent ulceration and to protect the epithelium from gastric enzymes
What do mucous neck cells secrete?
-alkaline mucin
What is the purpose of alkaline mucin?
-to maintain acidic conditions
What do parietal cells secrete?
-hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
What is HCl used for?
-helps denature proteins for chemical digestion
What is the purpose of intrinsic factor?
-binds vitamin B12 and assists in its absorption in the ilieum of the small intestine
What does the chief cell secrete?
-secretes pepsinogen
-converted by acid into pepsin
What is the purpose of pepsin?
-to chemically digest denatured proteins
What do enteroendocrine cells secrete?
-gastrin
What is the purpose of gastin?
-hormone that enters blood adn stimulates secretory activities of the chief and parietal cells and the contractile activity of the gastric muscle
What are circular folds of the small intestines covered wtih?
-intestinal villi which is covered with simple columnar microvillated epithelium
-to increase surface area
-goblet cells are spaced out