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78 Cards in this Set

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What does the autonomic nervous sysetm do and what is it responsible for?
-sends impulses to internal organs
-responsible for maintaining homeostasis (chemical equilibrium)
What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system increase?
-increases heart rate
-increases respiration rate and depth
-increases blood flow
-increases blood pressure
What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system shut down?
-digestion
What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system produce?
-adrenaline
-sweat
-metabolic wastes
-more viscous saliva
What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system relax?
-bladder muscles to hold more urine
What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system constict?
-sphyncters
What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system dilate?
-pupils
What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system use as an energy source?
-glycogen and fat
What are the 2 divisions of the autnomic nervous system?
-sympathetic
-parasympathetic
Why does saliva become more viscous?
-to trap more bacteria
-to be able to scream
Why does the uterus in a pregnant female contract during sympathetic actions?
-to get rid of the fetus
-can cause immediate abortion in animals
-to escape from predators
What happends in a non-pregnant female during sympathetic actions?
-stops muscular contraction to prevent cramps
- to prevent a period so predators don;t get attracted
What happens in a male reproductive system during sympathetic actions?
-ejaculation
What does the spleen do?
-part of vascular system
-stores excess RBC and repair RBC and create white blood cells
What is the anatomy of the Autonomic nervous system?
-has 2 motor neurons to each area
-first neuron from cord to ganglion (preganglionic morot neuron)
-second neuron from ganglion to area (postganglionic motor neuron)
-all changes happen simultaneously
Where does the sympathetic divison begin?
-begins in spinal cord b/t T1 and L2
Where are the sympathetic trunk ganglii located?
-as a chain of ganglions parallel to the spinal cord
What are peripheral ganglii?
-out in body towards organs
How do these actions all occur simultaneously?
-becuase of preganglionic neurons
Where do neurons go at top of cord?
-face, lungs, and heart
Where do neurons go in the middle of the cord?
-to another set of ganglions (peripheral ganglions)
-to liverm stomach, and spleen
Where do neurons go at the bottom of the cord?
-to bladder, rectum, and reproductive system
What do presympathetic ganglions do?
-associates with multiple postsympathetic ganlgions for simultaneous actions
-What keeps your heart beating when you are asleep?
-heart works on its own until autonomic system takes over to change its rate
Where does the parasympathetic divison originate?
-in brain and exits through CN III, VII, IX, and X
-some in sacral prtion of spinal cord
What does the parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system slow down?
-heart rate
-respiration rate
What does the parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system constrict?
-pupils
What does the parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system stimulate?
-digestive system
-lacrimal fluid (tears)
What does the parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system contract?
-bladder
What does the parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system relax?
-spleen
Where does the sympathetic divison begin?
-begins in spinal cord b/t T1 and L2
Where are the sympathetic trunk ganglii located?
-as a chain of ganglions parallel to the spinal cord
What are peripheral ganglii?
-out in body towards organs
How do these actions all occur simultaneously?
-becuase of preganglionic neurons
Where do neurons go at top of cord?
-face, lungs, and heart
Where do neurons go in the middle of the cord?
-to another set of ganglions (peripheral ganglions)
-to liverm stomach, and spleen
Where do neurons go at the bottom of the cord?
-to bladder, rectum, and reproductive system
What do presympathetic ganglions do?
-associates with multiple postsympathetic ganlgions for simultaneous actions
-What keeps your heart beating when you are asleep?
-heart works on its own until autonomic system takes over to change its rate
Where does the parasympathetic divison originate?
-in brain and exits through CN III, VII, IX, and X
-some in sacral prtion of spinal cord
What does the parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system slow down?
-heart rate
-respiration rate
What does the parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system constrict?
-pupils
What does the parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system stimulate?
-digestive system
-lacrimal fluid (tears)
What does the parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system contract?
-bladder
What does the parasympathetic divison of the autonomic nervous system relax?
-spleen
What are lacrimal glands?
-produce lacrimal fluid (tears)
Where are terminal ganglii located?
-on the surface, in the walls of or immediatly adjacent to effector organs
What do senses do?
-makes the brain become aware of what something is
What are the major stimuli the body is most sensitive to?
-smell, touch, cell movement, internal pressure, chemreceptors, proprioceptors, light waves, sound waves, fluid movement, cytoplasmic molecules, temperature, and pain
What are the receptors located in the skin and their order of sensitivity?
-free nerve endings-->merkel disk-->tactile corpuscles-->krause bulb-->ruffini corpuscles-->laminated corpuscles
How are the touch receptors stimulated?
-receptors are bags of dendritic nerve ends
-any contact with external pressure causes depolarization
What do proprioceptors do?
-Make your brain aware of where your limbs are adn what they are doing
What does the wind do and how does homeostasis correct this and what detects it?
-takes heat away
-homeostasis provides heat
-hair movement detects this
What do root hair plexus do?
-detects hair movment
-senses wind
What monitors fluid pressure adn where is it located?
-Baroreceptors monitor internal fluid pressure
-found in carotid arteries, aorta, medulla, bladder, and digestive system
What do the chemoreceptors sense?
-detect chemicals in the environment and bloods
-olfaction
-gustation
-monitor blood CO2and possibly oxygen
How do we detect light waves?
-photo receptors
-only detect Red, Green, and Blue
-mix to get correct pigmentation
-mix and match differnet neruons in eye and sends to correct part of occipital lobe
How do we detect sound waves?
-waves hit tympanic membrane
-vibrates auditory ossciles
-goes through oval window and creates liquid pressure waves
-waves move hairs which depoloarize neruons
-waves dissipate into atmosphere
What are photo receptors?
-rods and cones
-rods detect color
-cones detect dim light
-sensitive to red, blue,and green
What does an opithalamist do?
-shines a light into your eye and examens the blood vessels to determine illnesses
What lines nasal passages and how do we detect smell?
-mucus
-olfactory hairs
-sends impulse to neurons
-supporting cells keep neurons elongated
What is the importance of smell?
-for protection and be able to smell dangerous chemicals
-coordinates with taste
How does taste work?
-tongue consists of taste buds
-chemicals go throuhg crevices through use of saliva
Whyata re taste buds made of?
-gustatory cells
-supporting cells extend them
-project into pore using villi
What do the lens of the eye do?
-focus light waves to the back of the eye
What is arteriosclerosis?
-build up of cholesterol plague that can block veins and capillariesa dn cause heart attacks and strokes
-veins won't be able to expand as well
What is diabetes?
-When have a huge excess of glucose in blood and no insulin, blood vessels beign to rot
-can be seen in eyeball as dark spots
What are semicircular tubes?
-contains hair cells and gelatin
-orientates balance by bending hairs (depolarizing cells)
What are free nerve endings and what do they consist of?
-versatile
-mechanoreceptors
-fine touch sense
-temperature receptors
-pain receptors
What do temperature receptors monitor?
-monitors speed of cytoplasmic molecules
-slow=cold
-fast=hot
What does pain do and how is it caused?
-informs brain of cell damage
-result of cell destruction/injury
What are prostaglanins?
-found in cytosol of all cells
-depolarizes free nerve endings
What are the two categories of pain?
-controlled inflammation (heals faster without suppressants)
-uncontrolled inflammation (use suppressants)
What are the two types of pain?
-referred pain
-phantom pain
What is reffered pain?
-If something hurts externally, then something may be damaged internally
-brain isn't accurate enough to pin point exact position internally
What s phantom pain?
-pain in non-existant limb/extemity
-in amputies
-the sensory nerve that served missing area depolarized at incision
Why would a person not feel pain?
-a mutation that free nerve endings didn't develope
-or no functional pain center
What is the difference b/t fast and slow pain?
-Fast pain is sharp and passes quickly
-slow pain is an uncomforatable sensation that lasts