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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three processes of respiration?
-gas exchange
-oxygen utilization
What is ventilation of respiration?
What occurs during gas exchange in respiration?
-exchange b/t atm and blood
-exchange b/t blood and tissue
What occurs during oxygen ventilation of respiration?
-usage of O2 for ATP
What is needed for the atm to reach the lungs in respiration?
-by way of a membrane
What must the membrane of lungs be in order for blood to reach the lungs?
-highly vascular
-differentially permeable
Where must the lungs be located in the body in order for atm to reach the blood, why?
-deep within the body
-because the air must be warm, clean, and moistened
-takes alot of tubing to bring into body temp., cleaned, and adequatly moistened?
What is the function of the respiratory system?
-gas exchange
-vocalization (sound production)
-abdominal compression (breathing)
-reflexing, non-breathing air movement (coughing/sneezing)
What's the anatomy of the respiratory system?
-nasal cavity
-pharnyx (digestive also uses)(has stratified squamous epithelium to reduce friction)
How long is your respiratory tubing?
-around 600 square feet
Where do sinal infections occur?
-in paranasal sinus
How do you get a sinus infection?
-bacteria/viruses/go up small tube in nasal cavity to paranasal sinuses
-inflammatory response occurs
-holes swell shut adn an increase in mucus production
-free-nerve endings send pain
WHy do we have paranasal sinuses?
-to reduce weight in front of skull for spine to be able to support head
-sinuses are hollowed out
What do the nostils allow?
-allow air into nasal cavity
WHAT is the nasal cavity covered with?
-psuedostrateified ciliated columnar epithelium
-goblet cells
What is the nasal cavity separated in and what do they do?
-in 3 "shelves" or concha
-to increase surface area os it is easier to warm and moisten air
Where are eustacien tubes?
-found in the back of the nasal cavity
How do ear infections occur?
-caused by virus/bacterium traveling up eustacien tubes to middle ear
What do the tonsils do?
-store WBC to reduce bacteria/virus entering body)
What occurs during non-breathign air movement of the respiratory system?
-sneezing and coughing
-clears out the respiratory system
How does sound get produced?
-we produce sounds as we exhale and air passes through our vocal cords
What is used and the purpose of abdominal compression?
-uses the diaphram
-helps us expel solid wastes
-helps pregnant women expel fetus
What's the order of air movement through the respiratory system?
-nasal passages-->travels to pharnyx-->to larynx-->to trachea-->to throacic cavity-->bifurcates into bronchus into lungs--> divides into primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi--> terminal bronchi lead to aveoli sacks
What cells line the nostrils?
-nonkeratinized stratefied squamous epithelial tissue
-psudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium after a few millimeters
-contains goblet cells
What cells line the pharnyx?
-keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue
-provides protection from abrasion
What cells line the larnyx?
-psudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (mucus is needed)
What cells line the respiratory membrane of the lungs?
-simple squamous epithelium (diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide)
Where are olfactory receptors located in the nasal passages?
-most superior of nasal cavity
What is the larnyx made of and what special attributes does it contain?
-made up of about nine different types of cartilage
-the cartilage is strong enough to withstand external impact
-flexible enough for neck movements
What are vestibular folds used for?
-structures that have touch receptors in them in order to notice a liquid or solid and intiate a choking reflex
-used when the epiglottis is not closed in time
What is the glottis?
-lumen of the larnyx
What is laryngitis?
-inflammation of the larnyx
-caused by constant yelling of voice and bacterial/viral infection
-person will have hoarce voice, sore throat, and fever
What is the epiglottis?
-lid overtop of the larnyx
What occurs during swallowing?
-breathing stops
-esophagus expands and leaves the lumen of the trachea a little smaller
-epiglottis covers the glottis of the larnyx
Why are there cartilagenous rings around the trachea?
-rings don't go fully around trachea (so it doesn;t interfere with expansion of esophagus)
What is the lamina propria of the respiratory system?
-loose connective tissue that provides the blood and nerve supply for the respiratory system
Where do bronchioles lead to? Then to where?
-to terminal bronchioles
-lead to aveoli
What attributes do alveoli have that are necessary for the respiratory system?
-the walls of each alveoli are pieces of the respiratory membrane
-deoxygenated blood runs through the vacularized alveoli
What surrounds bronchioles and what is useful about it?
-smooth muscle tissue
-relaxes during sympathetic situations and causes respiratory tubes to dilate, increasing the amount of air intake
What are alveolar type 1 cells made of and what is advantageous about it?
-simple squamous epithelium
-in order to allow diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Where are alveolar type 2 cells located and what do they produce?
-alveolar wall
-produce a molecule referred to as surfactant
-not much different that cerebrospinal fluid
What is the purpose of surfactant?
-To reduce surface tension of the alveolar wall
-so that alveolar folds upon itself during deflation
-if there was no surfactant, walls would stick toether durign deflation
Where are alveolar macrophages locaed and what is there function?
-found in the lumen and walls of alveoli
-phagocytize any foreign material that don't get stopped in the larynx
What is advantageous about multiple capillaries in the tissue separating each alveoli?
-has a basement membrane
-allows easy diffusion
How are molecules diffused in the respiratory system?
-hemoglobin of blood cells carry alot of oxygen
-carbonate ions of plasma carry carbon dioxide out
What is asthma?
-smooth muscle constricts the bronchioles, shortening the lumen of the tubes
-an allergic reaction cuases dilation of blood vessels, more mucus, and constriction of smooth muscles
-causes breathing problems
-an inhaler provides steroids that relax smooth muscles and open the airways
How does the thoracic cavity change in shape during inhalation adn exhalation?
-thoracic area incrases in area for inhalatuion
-decreases for exhalation
-curvature of diaphram increases during exhalation
What is unique about the respiratory system that different from any tubing system within the human body?
-the respiratory system is like a sealed container
-entrance and exit is the same
-respiratory system is like a vacuum when sucking in air
What is relaxed inhalation?
-includes the external intercostal muscles and diaphram
-origin is upper rib
-insertion is lower rib
-elevate ribs for lungs to expand
-increase volume of thoracic cavity
What is relaxed exhalation?
-cancellation of impulse to diaphram (gets longer)
-reduce volume of thoracic cavity
-no muscles are involved
What is forced inhalation?
-stimulates sternocleidomastoid (goes to neck) and scalene muscles
-raies first two upper ribs
What is forced inhalation?
-stimulates sternocleidomastoid (goes to head) and scalene muscles
-sterncleidomastoid uses head as a lever to raise 1st adn second ribs
-raises ribs so you can ntake more air than relaxed inhalation
What is forced exhalation?
-uses internal intercostal muscles
-pulls ribcage down
-decreases volume of thoracic cavity and forces air out of lungs
Where deos respiratory nervous actions occur most?
-in the pons area of brain
-respiratory rythmicity center
-apneustic center
-pnunmotaxic center
-visceral vera
How does the respiratory rhythmicity center contribute to the respiratory system?
-regulates breathing rhythm
-uses expiratory and inspiratory centers
How does the pneumotaxic center contribute to the respiratory system?
-inhibits abnuestic center
How does the visercal vera contribute to the respiratory system?
-contains pressure receptors
How do chemoreceptors contribute to the respiratory system?
-enough CO2 content in blood depolarizes receptors
-sends impulse to inspiratory center
How does impulses travel during relaxed inhalation/exhalation?
1. High CO2 content depolarizes chemoreceptors
2. sends impulse to inspiratory division
3. impulse sent to relaxed inhalation muscles
4. enohgh pressure depolarizes receptors
5. impulse sent to expiratory division
6. impulse sent to inspiratory division to cancel inhalation impulse (exhalation)`
How does impulses travel during forced inhalation/exhalation?
1. blood/CO2 level skyrockets, depolarizes chemoreceptors
2. sends impulse to apneustic center
3. sends impulse to inspiratory division
4. impusle goes to forced inhalation muscles (lung expansion)
5. pressure receptors depolarize
6.impusle sent to pneumotaxic center
7. sends impulse to apneustic center (cancellation)
8. impulse sent to internal inter-costal muscles (forced exhalation)