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203 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is anatomy
study of body structures and their relationship with one another
gross anatomy
anatomy with unaided eye (what you can see)
physiology
study of how the body functions
levels of organization
1. atomic level/molecular
2.cellular
3.tissue
4.organ
5.system
6.organizm
atom
smallest unit of matter that show all of elements they make up
molecule
2 or more atoms joined
cell
basic functional and structural unit of the body
tissue
group of similar cells and their matrix(surrounding material) that perform a common function
organ
stucture made of 2 or more types of tissue, has specific function and usually recognizable shape
organ system
related organs with a common function
organism
1 living person
integumentary
covering, protection
skeletal
protection, support
muscular
movement
nervous
master regulatory system..gathers info, processes it and responds
cardiovascular
transport
respiratory
gas exchange
lymphatic
major defense system
endocrine
other master regulatory sysytem produces hormones
digestive
breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, gets rid of undigested materials
urinary
filters blood, eliminates metabolic waste
reproductive
produces offspring
C8 haracteristics of life
1. maintaining boundries 2. movement 3. responsiveness(react to change) 4. digestion 5. metabolism(all chemical reactions in body) 6. excretion(get rid of waste)7. growth 8. reproduction
5 necessities for survival
1.nutrients- chemical substances used for growth maintenance and repair
2.oxegen-for aerobic energy 3. water- chem reaction takes place in water
4.body temperature- required for proper metabolism
5. atmospheric pressure- required to breath
homeostasis
maintenance of a fairly constant internal environment
what parameters or body functions needs to be kept within a narrow range
BP, body temp, blood glucose level, blood ph
whats a negitive feedback system
mechanisms used by the body to maintain homeostasis
how is homeostasis maintaned
control center establishes a set point
receptors sense a change from setpoint
effectors carry out responses to return to setpoint
superior
closer to the head of body, above
inferior
closer to the feet, below
anterior
on or towards the front
posterior
on or towards the back
medial
at or towards the midline
lateral
at or towards the side
proximal
closer to the point of attachment to trunk
distal
away to the point of attachment to trunk
superficial
on or close to surface
deep
away from surface more internal
sagittal cut
divides in left and right portions
transverse cut
result in superior and inferior portions
what are 2 body cavities
1. dorsal-back-cranial cavity, vertebral canal
2. ventral-front-thoracic cavity-abdomunaopelvic
element
substance that contains one type of element
nucleus
central core
protons
positively charged particles
atomic number
# of protons
96% of body is composed of what 4 elements
hydrogen, carbon,
nitrogen, oxegen
how are electron arranged
energy shells
inner-holds 2
middle-holds up to 8
shell 3 up to 18
valence shell
outermost shell where atoms join to form molecules
covalent bond
atoms share valance electrons
ionic bond
one or more valence electrons transfer from one atom to another
___________ rule
atoms react in a way that they have 8 electrons in their valence shell except for hydrogen
how many electrons in hydrogen valence shell?
2 all others have 8
polar molecule
molecule that has positive end and negitive end..ex-water
example of ionic bond
NaCl-NA..has 11 electrons2+8+1
cl has 17 electrons 2+8+7
ions
atoms that have electrical charge due to lost or gained electrons
do ionically bonded ions desolve in water
yes- the 2 ions seperate from each other
electrolyte
ion
chemical reaction
formation or breaking upof atomic bonds
reactants
starting substances
products
potential-stored energy
3 forms of energy
kinetic- associated with motion
chemical-potential energy stored in chemical bonds
formation of bonds _____
stores energy
breaking of bonds_______
releases energy
2 types of chemical reactions
synthetic or anabolic reaction
decomposition or catabolic
synthetic
molecules combine to form larger product
bonds formed-energy stored in bonds
decomposition
molecules are broken apart into smaller products
bonds are broken-stored energy released
important properties of water
good solvent
takes part in many chemical reactions
has high heat capability
acts like a cushion
solvent
solute
liquid in which substances can be desolved

substance desolved in liquids
what is Ph
measures the hydrogen+ concentration in a solution
buffer
prevents large changes
organic molecules
contains C and H
covalent bonded
usually very large
is water an organic molecule
no its carbon
macromolecule
large organic molecule
monomer
sub unit of macromolecule
examples of macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
basic sub units
monosaccharides, fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides
carbohydrates
contain--C,H,O
function-provide energy
types of carbohydrates
!.simple sugars
monosaccharides-1 sugar molecule(ex glucose)
disaccharides- 2 sugar molecules joined(ex sucrose)
21. polysaccharides-long chains of monosaccharides
names 3 types of polysaccharides
starch-storage form of glucose in plants
glycogen-storage form in animals
cellulose-polysaccharide used by plants to build cell wall
lipids
contain c,h,o
main function-used in adipose tissue for cushioning and insulation
types of lipids
neutral fats- triglycerides
phospholipids (components of cell membrane)
steroids (made from cholesterol)
proteins
contain C,H,O,N
what functions of proteins
structural
enzymes-catalyze chem reaction
antibodies-fight disease
hormones-regulatory molecules
protein structure
20 amino acids
8 essential amino acids
order tell what protein it is
nucleic acid
contains C,H,O,N,P
what are the 3 parts of nucleic acids
phosphate group
sugar molecule
N-conatining base
what are 5 nucleotides
A-adenine
C cytosine
G guanine
T thymosine
U uradl
2 kinds of nucleic acids
RNA-functions in protein synthesis
DNA genetic material
contains information for protein synthesis
compare RNA to DNA
DNA RNA
double strand single strand
ACGT ACGU
deoxyrybose ribose
what are the complimentary base pairs
A-T
C-G
what is a double helix
2 coiled strands of DNA
what is ATP
nuceotide that stores chemical energy foe use by the cell
what is cell membrane
outer covering of cell- plasma membrane
forms a barrier
cytoplasm
interior of the cell
what is cell membrane made up of
phospholipids-glycerol (2 fatty acids)
triglycerides-glycerol(3 fatty acids)
hydrophylic
attaches to water(polar)
hydrophobic
doesn't attach to water (nonpolar)
lipid bilayer
2 layers of phospholipids forming cell membrane
cholesterol
component of cell membrane
what are functions of membrane proteins
channels
transports
receptorsacts as self recognition molecules
serves as attachment sites
ligand
specificic molecules that bind to specific receptors
selectively permeable
semi permeable- allows some substances to pass throug and others to keep out
what can gothrough a cell memrane
water and small uncharges molecules ex- o2, steroids, hormones
defussion
movement of solute from area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration
how does a solute move
down their concentration gradients
tomicity
compares solute concentrations of 2 solutions
isotonic
solute concentrations are the same
hypotonic
one solution is less concentrated then the other
hypertonic
one solution is more concentrated the the other
how do other substances get in and out of cell
channels
transporters
1. active transport-requires ATP, molecule is moved against concentration of the gradient
2.passive transport-no energy is required, molecule moves down concentration gradient
endocytosis
cell membrane invaginates to import material
exocytosis
vesicle fuse with cell membrane to export material
cytoskeleton
microtubules and microfilaments that maintain cell shape and anchor some cellular components
centrioles
involved in cell division
cilla and flagella
cytoplasmic extensions on cell surface
wave motion of cillia moves fluids over surface
whip motion of flagilla propels cell forward
endoplasmic reticulum
protein processing, lipid manufacturer
ribosomes
site of protein synthesis
golgi complex
packages proteins fo delivery to locations in and out of cell
lysomes
sacks full of enzymes to break down foreign particles of debris
peroxisomes
similiar to lysosomes but specifically break down toxins
mitochondria
site of energy production in form of ATP
the cell powerhouse
aerocic cellular respiration
cells breakdown glucose in the pressence of O2 and store energy in ATP
C6H12+602--6H20+6CO2
how are genes arrranged
on chromosomes
how many genes does chromosomes have
thousands
how many chromosomes do humans have
46 or 23 pairs
what does each gene contain
information to make a specific protein
structure of DNA
nucleotides-adenine, cytosine, cuanine, thianine
what are the complimentary base pairs for DNA and RNA
DNA RNA
A U
C G
G C
T A
transcription
synthesis of RNA to DNA
translation
synthesis of protein from RNA
codon
sequence of 3 nucleotides that specifies one amino acid
what are joined together to form protein
amino acids
are all proteins alike
no every protein has a different sequence of amino acids
mitosis
cell division where one cell produces 2 identical daugher cells
cell cycle
interphase
mitosis
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
interphase
cell is growing and making copies of contents
mitosis
cell divides
prophase
nuclear envelope breaks down, centromes move to opposite poles, miotic spindle forms
pairs of chromosomes attach to spindles
metaphase
chromosoms line up along central spindle
anaphase
chromosomes pull apart and one of each pair move to opposite poles
telophase
miotic spindle disappears, nuclear envelopes reforms, cytokinesis- division fo cytoplasm
what are 4 types of tissue
epithealial, connective, muscle, nervous
epithealial tissue
forms tight sheets
lines body cavities
covers organs
forms boundries between 2 different environments
how is epitheleal tissue classified
based on # of layers and shape of cells
# of layers
simple- composed of a single layer of cells
stratified- composed of 2 or more layers
pseudostratified- one layer that looks like more
shape of cell
squamous- fairly flat
cubodial- cube shaped
columnar- taller then they are wide
what are glands
secretory organs
exocine glands
secretes substance into a duct thast leads to body surface--sweat gland
endocine gland
secrete homone into cell space and diffuse into blood ex pituatary
membranes
flat sheets of pliable tissue that covers or lines part of the body
types of membranes
epithelial-2 layers connective and epitheial
synovial-connective only
3 kinds of epitheleal membrane
mucous
serous
cutanous
mucous membrane(mucosa)
line body cavities that are open to the outside
pathogens
disease causing agents (bacteria, viruses)
serous membranes (serosa)
line body cavities that are closed to the outside
thoracic cavity
pleural membrane
pericardial membrane
abdominaopelvic
peritoneum
carnial cavity, vertebral cavity
meninges
serous membranes have 2 layers
parietal layer-cover walls of cavities
visceral layer-covers organs in cavities
there is serous fluid between layers for lubrication
cutaneous membrane
skin
2 layers of cutanous membrane
epitheleal
dense connective
synovial membrane
lines cavities of freely movable joints
loose connective tissue
integumentary system
skin and accessory organs which are nails, hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
describe skin
largest organ of body
acts as barrier
interfaces with external environment
2 layers of skin
epidermis- superficial layer-stratified squmous epithelium
dermis- deep epidermis- dense connective tisssue
2 kinds epidermal cells
kerotinocyte-epithelial cells filled with keratin
melanocytes-pigment producing cells
what is melanin
pigment producing cells
uv light stimulates production
what is keratin
tough fibrous protein that gives skin its protective qualities
what is subcutaneous layer
also called hypodermis
loose connective tissue
adipose or fat for insulation
what are cell types in epidermis
keratinocytes-filled with keratin waterproofs skin
melanocytes- filled with melanin
melanoma
cancer involving melanocytes
what is only accessory organ of epidermis
nails- contain hard form of keratin
describe dermis
connective tissue of fibroblasts, collegen, and elastic fibers
bloos vessels
what are sensory receptors of dermis
touch, temerature, pain, pressure
what are accessory organs of dermis
hair follicles, sweat glands
sebacious glands
hair follicles
invaginations of epidermis
what are hair follicles filled with
keratin
name parts of hair follicle
hair root-portion of hair inside of follicle
hair shaft- hair that emerges from follicle
arrector pilimuscle- make hair stand up, trap hair next to skin
what are sebacious glands
associated with hair follicle
what does sebacious gland secrete
sebum- only substance that coats hair
what causes pimples and acne
pimple- blockes sebacious gland
acne- inflamation caused by bacterial infection
what are kinds of sweat glands
eccrine- thermoregulation
apocrine-body odor
describe eccrine sweat glands
in dermis
ducts release sweat into skin
what is sweat made up of
99% water 1% salt and metabolic waste
where are apocrine glands
located in axillary and anagenita area(under arms b/t legs)
describe apocrine glands
this sweat has proteins and fats that invite bacteria
begin to function at puberty- sexual scent glands
how thick is skin
varies palms and soles of feet-very thick
face thin,eyelids and lips very thin
functions of skin
protection, thermoregulator, monitor sensory info, minor role in excretion, metabolic function
how does skin protect
protects underlying tissue
prevents entry of pathogens
absorbs metals(toxic)
trans dermal drugs can be applied on a patch
what is thermoregulation
sweating- for cooling
bloodflow to skin- incease to get heat and decrease to conserve heat
what is excreted through skin
salts and N
what is metabolic function
production of vitamin D
what are some skin disorders
infections and allergies
burns
skin cancer
how does skin heal
regeneration- repacement of destroyed cells with same kind os cells
fibrous skin healing
scars- replacing destroyed tissue with dense connective tissue
regeneration occurs for ____wounds
surface

basil stem cells incease miotic activity the new epithelial cells fill in area of lost tissue
fibrous healing occurs for ________ wounds
deep


capalliries become more permeable
fluid and clotting protiens leak into injured area
clot forms (scab)
fibroblasts secrete collegen fibers
phagocytes invade and clean up area
epithelium regenerates
scab falls off leaving new tissue
why are burns dangerous to skin
cause tissue damage and cell deathg
what are some causes of burns
intense heat
electricity
uv rays
chemicals
how are the severity of burns classified
1st degree, 2nd degree 3rd degree
1st degree burns
epidermus damage
redness slight pain and swelling
heal by regeneration in 3-6 days
2nd degree
epidermus and upper dermis damage
red, pain, blisters
heal by regeneration and fibrous in 3-4 weeks
3rd degree
entire thickness of skin
area turns white or black
no pain
healing requirers skin grafts