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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which two veins yield the Superior Ophthalmic Vein?
Supraorbital and angular.
Is the Supraorbital vein deep or superficial?
Superficial
Where does the supraorbital vein originate?
Laterally near zygomatic-frontal suture, supraorbital margin (deep to orbicularis oculi)
What does the orbicularis oculi allow?
Closing of the eyelids.
The supraobital vein anastomses with branches of the ______________.
Superficial temporal.
What are some of the branches of the supraorbital vein?
Palpebral and frontal (or forehead).
Where does the supraorbital vein receive it's diploic vein?
Superciliary arch.
How does the supraorbital vein become the superior root of the superior ophthalmic vein?
via the communication vein that penetrtes the septum
Where does the supraorbital vein terminate?
When it joins the supratrochlear to form the angular vein.
Where does the supratraochlear vein descends on the _____________ to join the _____________ to form the _______________.
forehead, supraorbital, angular
How does the angular vein become the inferior root of the superior ophthalmic vein?
It's communicating branch penetrates the septum (septal penetrating branch).
Why is enfective blood from infective skin of the danger triangle able to enter the orbit and brain?
The angular and facial vein are valveless.
What makes up the superior and inferior root of the superior ophthalmic vein?
Superior root- supraorbital. Inferior root- angular.
The superficial facial receives ____________ which communicates with ___________________ which communicates with _____________________.
Deep facial, pterygoid venous plexus, cavernous sinus.
Facial receives __________ branch of ____________ and then facial drains to the ____________.
anterior, retromandibular, internal jugular.
Name the 4 branches of the superficial temporal vein.
Frontal, parietal, middle temporal, transverse
Where does the parietal branch (of the superficial temporal vein) receive an emissary vein?
Parietal foramen.
Where does the middle temporal branch of the superficial temporal vein penetrate?
temporalis fascia.
Where does the transverse facial branch of the superficial temporal vein travel over?
The zygomatic bone.
Where does the superficial temporal vein terminate?
Parotid gland, where it meets maxillar vein to form the retromandibular.
What two veins form the retromandibular?
superficial temporal vein and the maxillary vein.
Regarding the retomandibular vein, what does the anterior branch join and where?
Facial, near lower border of parotid.
The retromandibular vein's posterior branch joins the _________________ to form the ___________ on ______________________.
posterior auricular, external jugular, sternocleidomastoid.
The posterior auricular vein is mainly a __________ vein.
Scalp.
The posterior auricular vein uses a mastoid emissary vein to connect to _________________________________.
Sigmoid dural venous sinus.
Where is the pterygoid venous plexus a part of?
infratemporal fossa.
Are the pterygoid venous plexus and maxillary veins deep or superficial veins of the face?
Deep.
The pterygoid venous plexus communicates to the orbital veins via _________ fissure to___________________ vein.
inferior orbital, infraorbital.
The pterygoid venous plexus communicates to the face via the _____________.
Deep Facial.
The pteroid venous plexus communicates to the cavernous sinus by 3 routes, one of them is the ______________.
nconstant emissary vein of vesalius foramen.
The Vesalius foramen is in between which two foramen?
foramen lacerum and foramen ovale.
Where does the pterygoid venous plexus drain to?
maxillary vein.
Name the 7 superficial veins of the head.
Supraorbital, supratrochlear, angular and facial, superficial temporal, retromandibular, posterior auricular, pterygoid venous plexus.
What is the origin of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV)?
when septal penetrating branch of supraorbital meets septal penetrating branch of angular.
What are the 3 branches of the superior ophthalmic vein?
two superior vortex ceins, lacrimal vein, and central retinal.
Where does the central retinal branch of the superior ophthalmic vein possibly drain into?
cavernous sinus.
The inferior ophthalmic branch of the superior ophthalmic communicates with two main branches. Name them.
Palpebral branches and angular, pterygoid plexus and infraorbital.
What does the inferior ophthalmic branc of the superior ophthalmic receive?
Two inferior vortexveins.
Where does the inferior ophthalmic branch drain into?
superior ophthalmic then to cavernous sinus, but sometimes directly drains to the cavernous sinus.
What are the three major orbital venous routes?
Superior ophthalmic vein-caernous sinus, angular, pterygoid plexus.
Which of the three major orbital venous routes is the main pathway?
Superior ophthalmic vein-cavernous sinus route.
Does the angular or pterygoid plexus route have less orbital blood?
Pterygoi plexus less than the angular.
What are the three main veins of the superior orbital fissure?
Superior ophthalmic vein, inferior ophthalmic vein, and central retinal vein (sometimes exits SOF).
Name some veins of the eyeball.
Superior vortex, Inferior vortex, and central retinal.
Where does the superior vortex vein of the eyeball drain into?
Superior ophthalmic.
Where does the inferior vortex vein of the eyeball drain into?
Inferior ophthalmic.
Where does the central retinal vein of the eyeball drain into?
Superior ophthalmic or to cavernous sinus.
Scalp veins are a part what branches?
Superficial temporal.
The outer periosteum or pericranium of the skull is not meninges but ________________.
Deepest layer of scalp.
Does the siploe of skull contain diploic veins, diploic arteries, or both?
Only diploic veins.
Which veins can carry infections to the cranium?
Emissary veins.
Which veins connect to scalp veins, diploic veins and dural sinus veins?
Emissary veins.
In the cranium, which of the 3 meninges is the most outer? Is it the thickest or thinnest of the meninges?
Dura mater, it is most thick.
Which layer of dura is continous with the periosteum at foramina?
Outer periosteal.
Which layer of dura is continuous with the epineurium that surrounds spinal and cranial nerves?
Inner meningeal layer.
The inner meningea layer surrounds _____ and________ nerves.
Spinal and cranial.
What is the space between the arachnoid and dura mater named?
Subdural space.
Which of the dura is the middle meninges? What is it attached to?
Arachnoid mater, attached to inner meningeal layer of dura.
Which layer forms a sheeth over the optic nerve (CN II)?
Arachnoid.
What is papilledema?
Where the optic nerve head appears swollen on ophthalmoscopic view.
What is a possible cause of papilledema?
increased intercranial pressure.
Bilateral papilledema may be a sign of what condition?
Pseudotumor cerebri.
Pseudotumor cerebri most commonly effect whom?
Fat, Fertile Females
To which dura does the subarachnoid space belong to?
Arachnoid.
What does the subaracnoid space contain?
Cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral veins and arteries.
Within the subarachnoid space, what is contained between the pia and arachnoid?
Cisterna.
What is one of the purposes of the CSF?
Impact resistance.
Which of the dura is the thinnest and most inward, delicate layer of the meninges?
Pia mater.
Where does the pia mater run?"
It invaginates into the brain/
What does the pia mater carry into the brain?
Small arteries and veins that supply CNS nervous tissue.
Describe the Ventricular system.
Choroid plexus in all four lobes. Lateral ventricals are in all four lobes. Within the system contains CSF for sponginess.
Regarding the terminating Cerebral Veins, Dural Partitions, and Dural Sinuses, are all dural sinuses veins or all sinuses veins?
All dural sinuses are veins, but not all sinuses are veins!
Where do all cerebral veins and other veins of subarachnoid space drain to?
Dural sinuses.
Are all cerebral veins and dural sinuses deep or superficial?
Deep veins of head.
What does the great cerebral vein join of the falx cerebri to form a straight sinus?
Inferior safittal sinus.
What is the straight sinus?
It is in junction of cerebral falx with tentorium cerebelli.
Where does the tstraight sinus normally drain into?
Left transverse sinus.
Where does the superior safittal sinus drain into?
Right transverse sinus.
What does the superior sagittal sinus receive along it's course to the right transverse sinus?
Superior cerebral veins.
Which veins do the occipital sinus communicate with?
Vertebral veins.
Where does the transverse sinus run along?
Occipital bone and petrosal portions of the temporal bones.
What sinuses and veins do the transverse sinuses receive?
Superior petrosal sinus, inferior cerebral and cerebellar veins, and diploic veins.
What does the transverse sinus turn inferiorly to become?
Sigmoid sinuses.
Where is the confluence of sinuses located?
Internal occipital protuberance, where the superior sagittal, straight, occipital, and transverse sinuses meet.
Which bone do the sigmoid sinuses groove as they descend?
The mastoid part of temporal bone.
Where do the sigmoid sinuses exit the skull?
Jugular foramen.
What are the sigmoid sinuses continuous with?
Superior bulb of the internal jugular vein.
What drains into the internal jugular vein?
Inferior petrosal sinus.
What is the appearance of the cavernous sinuses?
Contains trabeculae and is spongy.
What is the course of the cavernous sinuses?
Extends from superior orbital fissure to apex of petreous temporal bone.
Where does the cavernous sinus drain into? (3 parts)
Inferior petrosal sinus, superior petrosal sinus, inferiorly into pterygoid venous plexus.
Where are the anterior and posterior intercavernous sinuses located?
Insde the dural diaphragma sella, which is penetrated by stalk (infundibulum) of pituitary.
What is medial to the cavernous sinus?
Poituitary gland and sphenoidal air sinus.
What is located inside the cavernous sinus?
Internal carotid artery (with its sympathetic nerve plexus) and abducent nerve (CN VI).
How are the carotid artery and abducent nerve separated from the sinus blood?
Endothelial covering.
What are the four nerves that lie inside the lateral wall of a cavernous sinus?
Oculomotor nerve (CN III), Trochlear nerve (CN IV), Ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve (CN V1), and Maxillary diision of trigeminal nerve (CN V2).
What is the cavernous sinus dural roof continuous with?
Dural sellar diaphragm.
What does the superior sagittal sinus become?
Right transverse sinus.
Where does the occipital sinus drain into?
Left transverse sinus which receives straight sinus.
Where does the superio petrosal sinus drain into?
End of transverse sinus.
Where does the cavernous sinus drain into? (3 parts)
Superior and inferior petrosal sinuses.
Intercavernous sinuses can carry a ___________ from one cavernous sinus to the other.
Thrombus.