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44 Cards in this Set

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abduction
movement away from the longitudinal axis of the body in the frontal plane;
example: moving the arm outward laterally
adduction
movement towards the longitudinal axis of the body in the frontal plane;
the reverse of abduction
flexion
movement in the anterior-posterior plane that reduces the angle between articulating elements;
examples: bending the knee, bending the elbow
extension
movement in the anterior-posterior plane that increases the angle between articulating elements;
the reverse of flexion;
examples: straightening the knee, straightening the elbow
hyperextension
any movement where a limb is extended beyond its normal limits, resulting in joint damage
circumduction
angular movement in a loop or circular shape;
example: drawing a circle on a blackboard
rotation
turning at a pivot joint;
example: turning the head from facing the left side to facing the right side
lateral rotation
the reverse of medial rotation or internal rotation
external rotation
lateral rotation
medial rotation
rotating the anterior aspect of the limb inwards toward the ventral surface of the body;
example: from the standard anatomical position, moving your right upper arm and lower arm to touch your right thigh
internal rotation
medial rotation
pronation
movement of the wrist and hand from palm-facing-front to palm-facing-back
supination
the reverse of pronation
eversion
twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole outward
inversion
twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole inward
dorsiflexion
elevation of the distal portion of the foot and the toes;
example: digging in the heels
ankle flexion
dorsiflexion
plantar flexion
elevating the heel and proximal portion of the foot;
example: standing on tiptoe
ankle extension
plantar flexion
lateral flexion
bending the vertebral column to the side along the frontal plane or coronal plane
opposition
movement of the thumb that produces pad-to-pad contact of the thumb with the palm or any other finger
reposition
the reverse of opposition
protraction
moving a part of the body anteriorly in the horizontal plane;
example: you protract your clavicles when you cross your arms
retraction
the reverse of protraction
elevation
movement of a structure in the superior direction;
example: shrugging your shoulder elevates your scapula
depression
movement of a structure in the inferior direction;
example: opening your mouth depresses your mandible
articulation
interaction of adjacent bones; a joint
joint
an area where adjacent bones interact; an articulation
synovial joint
freely movable diarthrotic joints; may permit movement in one, two, or all three planes
gliding joint
joint with flattened or slightly curved faces that permits the relatively flat articular surfaces to slide across one another;
example: sternoclavicular joint (clavicle - manubrium articulation)
plane joint
gliding joint
planar joint
gliding joint
nonaxial gliding joint
gliding joint that permits only small sliding movements
multiaxial gliding joint
gliding joint permits sliding in any direction
hinge joint
a monoaxial joint that permits angular movement in a single plane, like the opening and closing of a door;
examples: elbow joint, knee joint
pivot joint
a monoaxial joint that permits only rotation;
example: atlanto-axial joint (atlas - axis pivot articulation)
condylar joint
a biaxial joint where an oval articular face nestles within a depression on the opposing surface;
angular motion occurs in two planes, along and across the length of the oval;
example: metacarpophalangeal joint
ellipsoidal joint
condylar joint
saddle joint
a biaxial joint that resembles a saddle because it is concave on one axis and convex on the other axis;
example: carpometacarpo joint of thumb
ball-and-socket joint
a triaxial joint where the round head of one bone rests within a cup-shaped depression in another;
all combinations of movements, including rotation, can be performed at ball-and-socket joints;
examples: shoulder joint, hip joint
monoaxial
permits movement along only one axis or only angular movement in one plane
uniaxial
monoaxial
biaxial
permits movement to occur on two axes or angular movement in one of two planes (not in combination)
triaxial
permits a combination of rotational and angular motion