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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Axial skeleton
central skeleton, ribs, vertebra, sacrum
Appendicular skeleton
limbs
Functions of bone
1. structure, support
2.protection
3. movement
4. new blood cells
5. storage of Ca, P
Parts of bone
Cortex (compact bone)
Cancellous bone (trabecular, spongy)
Medullary cavity
Periosteum
Endosteum
Periosteum
double layered, contains osteoprogenitor cells, highly innervated
Endosteum
lining medullary cavity, also osteoprogenitor cells
Osteoporosis
imbalance in bone deposition and resorption, weak bone structure
Osteocyte
normal cell, maintains bone
Osteoblast
Bone Builder
Osteoclast
resorption of the bone, breaking it down
Cartilage
avascular connective tissue
Types of cartilage
Hyaline, fibrous, elastic
Hyaline cartilage
most common form, precursor to many bones, at birth most of the skeleton is made of hyaline cartilage, in adult- limited to sternal ends of ribs and articulating ends of synovial joints
Fibrocartilage
associated with weight bearing joints, found in intervertebral disks, menisci in several synovial joints, usually well innervated
Elastic cartilage
restricted to mobile parts of nose, external ear and larynx
Osteoarthritis
wearing away of cartilage at the joint, followed by deposits of bone on articular surface, causes pain and restricted movement
Name types of arteries in the bone
1. Periosteal - outside of cavity
2.Nutrient arteries - through periosteum into center, inner part of compact bone, medullary cavity
3.Epiphysial and Metaphysial
Innervation of the bone
Pain fibers to periosteum, vasomotor fibers to blood vessels
Types of bones
Long, flat, short, irregular,sesamoid
Example of long bone
digits, femur
Example of short bone
ankle and wrist
Example of sesamoid bone
knee cap (patella)
Example of flat bone
bones of skull, sternum
Example of irregular bone
vertebra, sphenoid
Name parts of bone from top to bottom
Epiphysis - diaphysis - metaphysis - epiphysis
What type of tissue do bones come from?
Mesenchyme
Name two types of ossification
Intramembranous and endochondral
Intramembranous ossification
goes straight from mesenchyme to bone - most skull bones
Endochondral ossification
first forms a cartilage model - femur
Achonroplasia
decreased endochondreal ossification, inhibited proliferation of chondrocytes in growth plate cartilage, gene mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
25- 40% bilateral, obesity factor, most common in growing adolescents, danger of avascular necrosis
What is a function of synovial membrane
Production of synovial fluid and taking contaminants out of the joint
What are characteristic of a synovial joint
diarthroses, hyaline cartilage, joint capsule, synovial lining, capsular ligametns, may have disk (meniscus), fatpad in many,may have intra-articular ligaments, freely moveable
Fat pad
filling space, helping move synovial fluid around joint
Type of articular ligaments
capsular, extracapsular, intra-articular
Capsular ligaments
thickening of articular capsule
Extracapsular ligaments
outside and distinct from articular capsule
Intra-articular
appear to be within synovial membrane but are actually outside the joint cavity - ACL/PCL
Name 6 types of synovial joints
Hinge, pivot, saddle, ball and socket, plane, condyloid
Plane joint
usually uniaxial, permit only gliding or sliding movements
Hinge joint
Uniaxial, permit flexion and extension only
Saddle joint
biaxial, saddle shaped heads permit movements in two different planes
Condyloid joint
biaxial, permit flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction
Ball and Socket
multiaxial, rounded head fits into concavity, which permits movement on several axes
Pivot joint
uniaxial, round process of bone that fits in bony ligamentous socket, allows rotation
Which joint responsible for shaking head - "yes"
occipital atlanto condyloid
Which joint responsible for shaking head - "no"
atlanto axial pivot joint, between C1 and C2
Fibrous joint
Bones of the joint are connected by fibrous ligamensts only
Name 3 types of fibrous joints
Sutures, gomphoses, syndesmoses
Suture joints
synarthroses, connect flat bones of the skull in a toothlike pattern
Gomphoses
slightly moveable, anchors teeth in sockets
Syndesmosis
apposed bones are joined by fibrous membrane, slightly moveable, radius/ulna, tibia/fibula
Cartilaginous joints
bones joined by some type of cartilage
Name two types of cartilaginous joints
Symphysis
Synchondrosis
Symphysis
Permanent fibrocartilage disks separating bones, covered by hyaline cartilage, allows some movement - pubic symphysis, intervertebral
Synchondrosis
Temporary type of cartilage joint seen at epiphysial plates during development. Made of hyaline cartilage, eventually replaced by the bone
Blood supply of joints
Anastomoses, articular arteries
Innervation of joints
Highly innervated, capsule especially, nerves supplying a joint also supply the muscles moving the joint and the skin covering the joint
Proprioception
Knowing where body parts are relative to the space
Fat pad sign
Also called sail sign, if on the x ray can see fat pad, it means that its displaced by a fracture
What is fascia?
A sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue enveloping, separating, or binding together muscles, organs, and other soft structures of the body.
Name two types of fascia
Deep and superficial
What are the functions of the fascia
Strength, compartmentalization, ease of movement
What is a composition of fascia?
Extracellular matrix, collagen(structure), elastin(elasticity), reticular fibers(support), cells - fibroblasts, adipose, macrophages, mast cells
Name deep fascia specializations
Neurovascular sheath, retinacula, fibrous sheath, intermuscular septa, muscle attachment
What two layers does superficial fascia has?
Superficial fatty Campers layer and deep membranous Scarpas layer
What is a retinacula?
Holds tendons in place during joint movement
What does deep investing fascia do?
Encapsulate a muscle
Compartment syndrome
Swelling of the muscle causes it to expand, however fascia doesnt let it to expand, need to cut fascia to release pressure
What are some uses of fascia
OMM, acupuncture, useful in surgery, limit spread of infection, blood , urine, etc
assists musculovenous pump(walking pumps venous blood to limbs)
Smooth muscle
Non striated, involuntary by ANS, walls of hollow viscera, blood vessel walls, internal eye
Cardiac muscle
Semi striated, involuntary, both intrinsic and ANS modified, heart and proximal great vessels
Skeletal muscle
Striated, voluntary by somatic NS, most named muscles, produce movement and resist gravity
What is an aponeuroses
Like tendons, but flat collagen bundles
Name 5 muscle shapes
Pennate - unipennate, bipennate, multipennate, feather like
Fusiform- spindle like
Parallel(strap)- have aponeuroses
Convergent- broad attachment from which fascicles converge to single tendon
Circular- sphincters
Rank muscle shapes in terms of power starting with least powerful
Strap- fusiform-unipennate-bipennate-multipennate
Movements are performed by...with different role
groups of muscle
Where and why are muscles usually innervated
On DEEP surface of belly, for protection
Origin of a muscle
Proximal portion of muscle, remains fixed
Insertion of muscle
distal end of muscle, can move
Name 3 types of contractions
Reflexive, tonic, phasic
Reflexive contraction
automatic, not controlled, like breathing
Tonic contraction
does not produce movement but gives firmness
Phasic contraction
Can be isometric - same length, increased tension or isotonic - changed length
Two types of phasic isotonic contractions
Concentric - muscle shortens
Eccentric - muscle lengthens
Agonist muscle
Main muscle responsible for certain movement
Fixator muscle
Steady proximal part, while movement occurs at distal part
Synergist
Complements agonist
Antagonist
Opposes agonist
Bursa
Fluid filled sac around joint
Synovial Sheath
Prevents rubbing of tendons
Muscles are named based on
Function, shape, location, attachments, size, number of heads, fiber orientation