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138 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are joints?
articulations or meeting points between two bones
what are the two ways that joints can be classified?
they can be classified by structure or by function
What determines the classification of joints by structure?
binding materials
What determines the classification of joints by function?
amount of movement
what are the three types of joints by structure?
fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial
what are the three types of joints by function/movement?
synarthrodial
amphiarthrodial
diarthrodial
What determines the amount of movement at a fibrous joint?
the length of the fibres
Does a fibrous joint have a joint cavity?
no
what are the three types of fibrous joints and give examples
sutures - the skull
syndesmosis - the membrane b/w the radius and ulna
gomphosis - peg in socket - tooth in bone
what are the two characteristics of cartilaginous joints?
no joint cavity and the joint is united by cartilage
what are the two types of cartilaginous joints?
symphases and synchondroses
what is the main function of synchondroses type joints?
They allow for bone growth during childhood
where are synchondroses located?
in the epiphysial plate of long bones
what type of cartilage is found in synchondroses?
hyaline
what is the function of symphyses?
they absorb shock
what type of cartilage is found in symphyses?
hyaline
synovial joints have 6 major characteristics, name them.
fibrous joint capsule
synovial membrane
synovial fluid
joint cavity
articular cartilage
ligaments
what type of joint is a synovial joint if classified by function?
diarthodial
In a synovial joint, what helps to maintain stability?
reinforcing ligaments
what are the two types of reinforcing ligaments?
Intrinsic and extrinsic
what is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments?
intrinsic is actually part of the joint capsule, while an extrinsic ligament is not part of the joint capsule.
What is another name for intrinsic ligaments?
capsular
Extrinsic ligaments can further be classified as what, based on their location?
extracapsular or intracapsular
what are the four additional features of the synovial joints (what else do they contain)?
fatty pads, menisci, bursae, and tendon sheaths
what are the 6 types of synovial joints?
Planes
hinge
pivot
condyloid
ball and socket
saddle
At what type of surface would you find a plane joint?
A flat surface
what type of movements do plane joints do?
gliding, non-axial movement
what type of movements do a hinge joint make? Axial?
flexion/extension ; uni-axial
describe a hinge joint
convex projection of one bone meets concave depression of another
describe a pivot joint
rounded end of one bone protrudes into sleeve or groove of another
What type of movement do pivot joints do?
rotation only
give two examples of pivot joint
proximal radioulnar joint
atlanto-axial joint
describe a condyloid joint
oval convex surface fits into an oval concave surface
what type of movement does a condyloid joint do?
all angular movements ; bi-axial
describe a saddle joint
similar to condyloid - oval convex surface fits into an oval concave surface
what is the difference between a saddle joint and a conyloid joint?
The range of motion
what kind of movement does a saddle joint do?
flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction and opposition
describe a ball and socket joint
round head meets with concave socket
what kind of movement does a ball and socket joint do?
All movements ; multi-axial
what are the three types of muscle?
smooth, skeletal and cardiac
what are four functions of skeletal muscle?
gross and fine movements
maintain posture
stabilize joints
generate heat
what are three functions of smooth muscle?
supply nutrients
blood circulation
GI motility
where do you find smooth muscle?
inside blood vessels and the GI tract
what are the four fascicle arrangements of skeletal muscle?
circular
convergent
parallel (aka fusiform)
pennate
describe a circular fasicle arrangement
concentric rings
describe a convergent fasicle arrangement
broad origin, single tendon (fan shaped)
what type of fascile arrangement is strap like or spindle shaped with an expanded belly?
parallel / fusiform
what type of fascicle arrangement attaches obliquely to a central tendon and would be described as feather-like?
pennate
which types of muscle cells are long, cylindrical and voluntary with obvious striations and multi nucleated cells?
skeletal
which type of muscle is spindle shaped, involuntary, uni-nucleated or bi-nucleated with striations?
cardiac
which type of muscle is short, branched and involuntary, uninucleated with no striations?
smooth
what are the four functional characteristics of muscle?
excitability
contractility
extensibility
elasticity
what is the word for the ability of a muscle to receive and respond to stimuli?
excitability
what is contractility?
the ability of a muscle to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated
what is the ability of a muscle to be stretched beyond the normal resting length?
extensibility
what is elasticity?
the ability of a muscle to resume normal resting length after being stretched
what are the four types of actions (roles) of skeletal muscle?
agonist
antagonist
synergist
fixator
which of the muscles functional roles is described as the 'prime mover'?
the agonist
what do synergists do?
they work with agonists to promote the same movement or to reduce unnecessary movement
what is the name for a type of synergist that immobilizes a bone or two muscles' origins to stabilize the area for movement?
fixator
what type of joint are the Intervertebral disc joints?
cartilaginous symphysis joints
what kind of cartilage is found on the articular surfaces of IVD joints?
hyaline
what form the strongest attachments between vertebrae?
Intervertebral discs
where would you find the thickest intervertebral discs?
in the cervical and lumbar regions
why are the IVDs thicker at the cervical and lumbar regions?
these areas need the greatest cushioning - they are the greatest weight bearing regions
The IVD has two components, what are they?
annulus fibrosis and the nucleus pulposus
describe the annulus fibrosis
concentric layers of fibrocartilage
describe the nucleus pulposus
semi gelatinous, highly elastic, high water content
the nucleus pulposus is avascular. What does that mean?
It has no nutrient supply channels.
How does the nucleus pulposus get nutrients?
via diffusion from the annulus fibrosis
what is another name for zygapophyseal joints?
facet joints (of the spine only)
what are the movements at the cervical facet joints?
flexion, extension ; lateral flexion; rotation
what are the movements at the thoracic facet joints?
rotation and limited flexion and extension and lateral bending
what are the movements at the lumbar facet joints?
flexion, extension, with limited rotation and lateral bending
which three ligaments prevent hyperflexion of the spine?
posterior longitudinal ligament
supraspinous ligament
interspinous ligament
which ligament prevents hyperextension of the spine?
anterior longitudinal ligament
what does the intertransverse ligament (of the spine) do?
prevents excessive rotation of the spine
describe the ligament nuchae of the spine
is is a thickening of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments in the cervical spine
what does the ligamentum flavum do?
it joins the lamina of adjacent vertebrae and forms the posterior part of the vertebral canal.
which spinal ligament forms part of the posterior vertebral canal?
the ligamentum flavum
What are the two membranes in the cervical spine called?
the atlanto-occipital membrane and the atlanto-axial membrane
Describe the placement/direction/attachments of the atlanto-occipital membrane
runs from the anterior and posterior arches of C1 to the anterior and posterior margins of the foramen magnum
What membrane runs from the inferior surface of the anterior and posterior arches of C1 and the anterior and posterior laminae of C2?
The atlanto-axial membrane
what is the function of the atlanto-occipital membrane and the atlanto-axial membrane?
they support and stabilize the joints between the occiput and C1 (the atlanto-occipital joint) and C1 and C2 (the atlanto-axial joint)
What are the three ligaments connecting axis to the occiput?
the apical ligament
alar ligaments
cruciate ligaments
What is the name of the ligament that creates the odontoid foramen?
the transverse ligament
the transverse (cervical) ligament is part of which ligament group?
The cruciform ligaments
where do the superior and inferior cruciate ligaments (cervical) originate from?
The transverse ligament
where does the (cervical) superior cruciate ligament attach?
at the occiput
where does the inferior (cervical) cruciate ligament attach?
to the body of axis
where does the (cervical) transverse ligament attach?
to the medial tubercles of the lateral masses of atlas
Name the three foramen of atlas.
transverse foramen
vertebral foramen
foramen for dens.
what are the four main functions of connective tissues?
support structures
protect structures
compartmentalize
form layers
what are the three gross layers of the skin and underlying connective tissue? Name them in order from superficial to deep.
epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous
what are the three types of muscle tissue wrappings?
superficial / epimysium
intermediate / perimysium
deep / endomysium
what muscle tissue wrapping covers the muscle belly?
the superficial / epimysium
what muscle tissue wrapping wraps around the muscle fascicles?
the intermediate / perimysium
what muscle tissue wrapping wraps around individual muscle cells?
deep / endomysium
connective tissue wrappings extend the length of a muscle and end with what formation?
tendons
what does the tendon attach to?
the periosteum of the bone
the tendon attaches to the periosteum and the periosteum is continuous with what structure (besides the bone)?
ligaments
what structure attaches bone to bone?
ligaments
what structure attaches muscle to bone?
tendons
what are the generalized medial attachment sites for back muscles?
nuchal ligament
spinous processes
supraspinous ligaments
sacrum
what structure attaches bone to bone?
ligaments
what structure attaches muscle to bone?
tendons
what are the generalized lateral attachment sites for back muscles?
transverse processes of cervical spine and lumbar spine, angles of the ribs
what structure wraps muscles in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine?
the thoracolumbar fascia
what two (general) things do the muscles of the back do?
maintain posture and mediate movement of the spine
what is the role of the extrinsic muscles of the back?
movement of the shoulder girdle and ribs
what is the role of the intrinsic muscles of the back?
posture and movement of the spine
what are the four extrinsic superficial muscles of the shoulder/back?
trapezius, latissiums dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboid (major and minor)
what are the two extrinsic intermediate muscles of the back/shoulder?
serratus posterior superior
serratus posterior inferior
what are the two intrinsic superficial muscles of the back/shoulder?
splenius capitis
splenius cervicis
what are the three muscles making up the erector spinae? Name them from medial to lateral
spinalis
longissimus
iliocostalis
what are the two intrinsic deep muscles of the back/shoulder?
transverospinal group (semispinalis, multifidi, rotatores)
levator costorum
what are the three muscles of the transverospinal muscle group?
semispinalis, multifidi and rotatores
describe the general shape of the trapezius
three parts, large, diamond shape
describe the general shape of the latissimus dorsi and what is the fiber direction?
large, fan shape
superolateral
describe the general shape of the levator scapula(e) and what is the fiber direction?
they are a pair, and they are strap like
inferior fiber direction
describe the general shape of the rhomboids and what is the fiber direction?
broad bands
inferolateral
describe the general shape of the serratus posterior superior and what is the fibre direction?
small, thin, flat
inferolateral
describe the general shape of the serratus posterior inferior and what is the fibre direction?
small, thin, flat
superolateral
describe the general shape of the splenius capitas and cervicis and what is the fibre direction?
thin, strap like
superolateral
describe the general shape of the erector spinae and what is the fibre direction?
long, strong bands
vertical
describe the general shape of the trasverospinal muscle group and what is the fibre direction?
short muscles
superomedial
how many levator costorum muscles are there?
12 (pairs)
where do the levator costorum muscles attach?
to the transverse processes and the ribs
what muscle is the most superficial back muscle?
trapezius
what back muscle is deep to trapezius?
latissimus dorsi
what shoulder/upper back muscle is deep to trapezius?
levator scapula
which small, thin and flat muscle can be found deep to the rhomboids?
serratus posterior superior
what is the shape of sternocleidomastoid?
broad band
what is the action of SCM?
uni: contralateral rotation of c/s, ipselateral sidebending of c/s
bi: flexion of c/s
which scalene muscle is not part of the posterior cervical triangle?
anterior scalene
what is the relationship of the scalenes to the SCM?
deep
which scalenes do lateral flexion of the neck?
posterior
middle
anterior
which scalenes do flexion and lateral bending of the c/s?
anterior