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273 Cards in this Set

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funct of blood: what are 3 main functs?
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funct of blood: list 4 transport functs
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funct of blood: list 2 protection functs
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funct of blood: list 2 regulation functs
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blood: what are 2 components?
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blood: list formed elemnts?
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blood: alt name for RBC?
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blood: alt name for WBC?
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blood: plasmsa % of blood centrif volume?
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blood: avg % female hematrocr?
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blood: avg % male hematrocr?
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compositn of plasma: 4 main parts of mixture?
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compositn of plasma: % of water content?
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compositn of plasma: 3 types of proteins?
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compositn of plasma: funct of albumin?
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compositn of plasma: albumin: % of plasma proteins?
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compositn of plasma: funct of globulins?
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compositn of plasma: funct of fibrinogen?
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compositn of plasma: electrolyt -> list 6 kinds
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compositn of plasma: electrooyt -> amount of Na+
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compositn of plasma: electrooyt -> amount of Cl-
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compositn of plasma: nitrogenous products -> list 3 kinds
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erythroc: list 2 main functs
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erythroc: avg RBC count for female
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erythroc: avg RBC count for male
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erythroc: avg normalized amount of hemoglob for female
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erythroc: avg normalized amount of hemoglob for male
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erythroc: 3 reasons why male Hb > female Hb
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erythroc: structure: shape, describe inside
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erythroc: main composition
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erythroc: breakdown of the word "hemo-globin"
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erythroc: avg thickness & diameter?
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erythroc: avg lifespan?
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4 stages erythrc production: time periods for stages?
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4 stages erythrc production: 1st stage?
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4 stages erythrc production: 2nd stage?
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4 stages erythrc production: 3rd stage?
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4 stages erythrc production: 4th stage?
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Fe metabolsm: diff between ferric, ferrous?
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Fe metabolsm: daily iron loss for males
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Fe metabolsm: daily iron loss for females
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Fe metabolsm: minimum of Fe/day?
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Fe metabolsm: sources of Fe
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Fe metabolsm: 5 steps for metabolsm?
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Fe metabolsm: 3 possibilties after liver?
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old RBCs: 11 steps to breakdown of old RBCs?
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old RBCs: what happens in spleen?
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old RBCs: avg diameter of capillaries?
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old RBCs: RBCs contain what kind of structural proteins?
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old RBCs: function of struct proteins in RBCs?
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old RBCs: after RBC is degraded, describe globulin pathway
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old RBCs: after RBC is degraded, describe heme pathway
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old RBCs: what's stored in gall bladder?
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old RBCs: what's purpose of bile?
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old RBCs: what does bacteria in intestine do?
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old RBCs: what are bile pigments?
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old RBCs: what gives feces its brown color?
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old RBCs: rate of RBC production + death?
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erythropoi: what is it?
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erythropoi: define hemopoiesis
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erythropoi: alt. name for hemopoiesis
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erythropoi: nutritional requirm -> list 3 classes of requirem
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erythropoi: nutritional requirm -> which Fe needed?
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erythropoi: nutritional requirm -> where to get Fe from? is it large/small amt?
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erythropoi: nutritional requirm -> what's cobalamin?
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erythropoi: nutritional requirm -> what's req. for cell division stage?
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erythropoi: nutritional requirm -> co-factors for synth of hemoglobin?
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erythropoi: nutritional requirm -> what's vit C used for?
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hypoxem: define hypoxemia
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hypoxem: list 3 steps
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hypoxem: what's EPO?
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hypoxem: avg RBC amount at sea level?
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hypoxem: avg RBC amount at 1 mile altitud level?
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hypoxem: what's equiv unit for microliter?
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erythroc disordrs: define polycythemia
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erythroc disordrs: list 2 kinds
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erythroc disordrs: another name for primary polycythemia
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erythroc disordrs: 3 character. of prim polycyth?
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erythroc disordrs: list 3 types of polycyth?
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erythroc disordrs: define physiological polycyth?
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erythroc disordrs: physiolog polycyth: 2 character. of elite athletes?
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erythroc disordrs: 2 character. of 2ndary polycyth?
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> define it literally
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> 2 characters of anemia
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> what must go w/ vit B12?
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> what vit deficiency can also cause it?
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> list 3 kinds
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> define pernicous anemia
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> literally meaning of 'pernicious'
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> pernic anemia -> what's lacking?
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> pernic anemia -> how to treat? why that method?
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> pernic anemia -> where vit B12 found?
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> define sickle cell
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erythroc disordrs: anemia -> sickle cell -> conseq of sickle shape?
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platelets: what kind of formed element is it in terms of size?
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platelets: how many when ranked w/ others?
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platelets: how many avg per uL?
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platelets: diameter?
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platelets: 4 steps to production?
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platelets: avg life span?
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platelets: what stimulates megakarybl into megakaryoc?
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platelets: 2 places where they go after formed?
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platelets: functs -> list 5
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platelets: struct -> what kind of "feet" do they have?
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platelets: struct -> what transports chemicals?
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platelets: struct -> avg diam?
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platelets: struct -> do they have internal structs? if so, what are they?
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platelets: struct -> releases what chemical?
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platelets: struct -> funct of thromboxane A2?
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platelets: struct -> what inhibits thromboxane A2 production? what's the conseq?
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controllng bleedng: list 3 ways
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controllng bleedng: vasc spasm -> define
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controllng bleedng: vasc spasm -> what produces this
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controllng bleedng: vasc spasm -> how do platelets produce this?
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controllng bleedng: vasc spasm -> what works together to minimize bleeding? how fast it occurs?
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controllng bleedng: platel plug -> formed by what?
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controllng bleedng: platel plug -> how long to occur?
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controllng bleedng: formation of blood clot -> what process allows this?
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controllng bleedng: formation of blood clot -> what catalyzes fibrinogen->fibrin?
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controllng bleedng: formation of blood clot -> what's thrombin's precursor?
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controllng bleedng: formation of blood clot -> what is prothrombin?
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controllng bleedng: formation of blood clot -> how to classify prothrombin?
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controllng bleedng: what's word to describe "stop bleeding"?
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controllng bleedng: formation of blood clot -> what's another word for clotting?
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controllng bleedng: formation of blood clot -> what are clotting factors called?
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controllng bleedng: formation of blood clot -> procoagulants are produced where mostly? what form are they in while present in blood?
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controllng bleedng: formation of blood clot -> what ion is required?
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pathw of clottng: what is extrinsic mech?
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pathw of clottng: what is intrinsic mech?
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pathw of clottng: what is faster, ext- or intrinsic mech?
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pathw of clottng: extrins mech -> describe all steps in pathw
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pathw of clottng: extrins mech -> what do damaged blood ves. release?
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pathw of clottng: extrins mech -> what activates thrombokinase?
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pathw of clottng: extrins mech -> what forms prothrombin activator?
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pathw of clottng: extrins mech -> funct of promthrombin activator?
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pathw of clottng: extrins mech -> funct of thrombin?
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pathw of clottng: extrins mech -> what are precursors to fibrin polymer?
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pathw of clottng: intrins mech -> describe all steps of pathw
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pathw of clottng: intrins mech -> what activates anti-hemophiliac factor c?
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pathw of clottng: intrins mech -> what activates anti-hemoph factor b?
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pathw of clottng: intrins mech -> what activates anti-hemoph factor a?
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pathw of clottng: intrins mech -> what activates thrombokinase?
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fibrinolysis: describe all steps in pathw
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fibrinolysis: what's starting chemical?
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fibrinolysis: what activ kallikrein?
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fibrinolysis: what kallikrein do?
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fibrinolysis: funct of plasmin?
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fate of a clot: describe 3 steps
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fate of a clot: what is PDGF?
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fate of a clot: funct of PDGF?
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fate of a clot: define fibrinolysis
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3 factors preve clot absenc bleed: what are 3 general factors?
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3 factors preve clot absenc bleed: define prostacyclin
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3 factors preve clot absenc bleed: why doesn't presence of thrombin cause clot?
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3 factors preve clot absenc bleed: what are the anticoagulants that do this?
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3 factors preve clot absenc bleed: funct of antithrombin
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3 factors preve clot absenc bleed: funct of heparin
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3 factors preve clot absenc bleed: what inhib prothrombin->thrombin?
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functs of kidny: list 9 functs?
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functs of kidny: describe blood filtering
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functs of kidny: describe blood vol regulation
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functs of kidny: describe blood press regulate
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functs of kidny: what enzyme it release? funct of it?
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functs of kidny: what hormone it release? funct?
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functs of kidny: what it release for active form of vitamin d? impacts what?
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functs of kidny: what happens during starvation?
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nitrognous waste prod: list 4 of them
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nitrognous waste prod: where does ammonia come from?
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nitrognous waste prod: give chemical formula for urea formation
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nitrognous waste prod: how uric acid formed?
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nitrognous waste prod: what is creatinine? give formula?
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nephron: define it
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nephron: describe all parts of it
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nephron: renal caps: what are 2 parts?
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nephron: diff between aff + eff arteriole?
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nephron: loop henle -> what are 3 parts? what kind of cells are there?
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nephron: renal tubules -> list them
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nephron: what is collecting duct?
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basic steps urine form: list 4 steps
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basic steps urine form: arteriole -> direction of blood flow?
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basic steps urine form: describe what happens in glomerular filtration?
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basic steps urine form: what happens at re-absorp stage?
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basic steps urine form: what happens at secretion stage?
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basic steps urine form: what happens at H2O conservation stage?
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basic steps urine form: what does "peri" mean?
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kidn dimens: avg weight?
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kidn dimens: width?
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kidn dimens: length?
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kidn dimens: thickness?
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kidn dimens: # nephrons/kidney?
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GFR: define it
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GFR: avg for males?
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GFR: avg for females?
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GFR: L/day for males?
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GFR: L/day for females?
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GFR: urine production per day?
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GFR: % of glom filtrate reabsorbed?
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GFR: formula for MAP?
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reg of GFR: myogen mech -> what happens when BP increases?
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reg of GFR: myogen mech -> what happens when BP decreases?
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reg of GFR: myogen mech -> what kind of muscl makes up arterioles?
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reg of GFR: myogen mech -> end product of it?
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reg of GFR: tubuloglom mech -> describe all steps
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reg of GFR: tubuloglom mech -> define macula densa
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reg of GFR: tubuloglom mech -> define juxtaglom cells
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reg of GFR: tubuloglom mech -> what do juxtaglom cells release?
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reg of GFR: tubuloglom mech -> define paracrine messengr
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reg of GFR: tubuloglom mech -> end products of it?
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reg of GFR: tubuloglom mech -> what releases parac messgr (2)?
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reg of GFR: tubuloglom mech -> what does paracr messgr do (2)?
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reg of GFR: tubuloglom mech -> what does macula densa respond to?
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reg of GFR: symp control -> describe it
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reg of GFR: symp control -> end product?
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reg of GFR: symp control -> how does it cause vasconstr?
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reg of GFR: symp control -> what releases epi/noepineph?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> 3 main chemicals in mech?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> define angiotensinogen
.
reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> # am acids in angiotensinog?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> # am acids in angiotens I?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what enzyme for angiotensinog -> angiot I?
.
reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what enzyme for angiot I to angiot II?
.
reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> where is ACE produced?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> effect on blood vessels?
.
reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> 5 effects?
.
reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what happens in PCT?
.
reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what is reabsorbed in PCT?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what happens in Henle Loop, DCT, CD? what causes it?
.
reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what releases aldosterone?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what forces H2O intake?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what does hypothalam do?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what releases ADH?
.
reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what are the only 2 chems released by Post Pituitary?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what does ADH do?
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reg of GFR: renin-angiot mech -> what happens in CD? caused by what?
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PCT reabsorp: what is symport?
.
PCT reabsorp: what is antiport?
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PCT reabsorp: give 3 transport mechs?
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Tmax: define it
.
Tmax: for glucose?
.
Tmax: normal glucose filtration rate for renal tubules?
.
Tmax: why is there normally no glucose in renal tubes after PCT?
.
Tmax: fasting blood glucose rate?
.
Tmax: diabetics rate?
.
Tmax: threshold rate when glucose starts appearing in urine?
.
Tmax: define glycosur?
.
Tmax: initial sign for diabetz?
.
purp of tub secret in PCT: from what structure to what structure?
.
purp of tub secret in PCT: 2 purposes?
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purp of tub secret in PCT: list some wastes
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purp of tub secret in PCT: what is secreted for acid/base balance?
.
nephr loop: % water in glom filtrate is reabsorbed in PCT?
.
nephr loop: % water in glom filtrate in loop of henle? which segments?
.
nephr loop: % water reabsorbed in ending parts? what are those parts?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: ANP: what are 4 hormones?
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hormonl control in DCT + CD: ANP: stands for what? define it
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: ANP: when secreted?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: ANP: 4 actions?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: ANP: what leads to increased GF rate?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: ANP: inhibits what ions in what part?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: ANP: inhibits what system?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: ANP: inhibits what hormones?
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hormonl control in DCT + CD: ANP: end goal of all its reactions?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: aldost: 2 functions?
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hormonl control in DCT + CD: aldost: what is reabsorbed?
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hormonl control in DCT + CD: aldost: what is secreted?
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hormonl control in DCT + CD: ADH: where it acts?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: ADH: actions?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: ADH: stimulated by?
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hormonl control in DCT + CD: PTH: triggered by what?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: PTH: define hypocalcemia?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: PTH: actions?
.
hormonl control in DCT + CD: PTH: where is phospht xcretd?
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hormonl control in DCT + CD: PTH: where is ca+2 reabsorbd?
.