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122 Cards in this Set

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The last of the four steps in characterization in a performed play.
Acting
An imagined event or series of events, so that saying something or telling a story within the the story may be an event.
Action
As in metaphor, one thing is implicitly spoken of in terms of something concrete, extended to include an entire work or large portion of work.
Allegory
The repetition of initial consonant sounds through a sequence of words. ie: "While I nodded, nearly napping,..."
Alliteration
A metrical form in which each foot consists of two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed one.
Anapestic
It is what we write & speak in everyday language.
Prose
Mode, Tone & purpose
Satire
This includes introduction(exposition), complication,rising action, climax, falling action, & denouement (conclusion).
Freytag's Pyramid
Characters that do not change in significant ways.
Static characters
Characters that changes upon which the narrative rests.
Dynamic Characters
Struggles for or towards something or someone.
Protagonist
Struggles against something or someone.
Anatagonist
Character that exists because the plot demanded it.
Stock
Character without individuating characters.
Sterotype
Characters who serve for other characters, enabling us to see one or more of them better.
Foils
Characters who stand for qualities or concepts rather than actual personages.
Allergorical
A phrase.
Topic
Turns a phrase into a statement.
Theme
A detail or element of the story which is repeated throughout & which may even become symbolic.
Motif
Essay that looks at ideas, explores rather than explains,meditative, writer deals with ideas in an associative manner, flow may produce intercalary paragraphs.
Speculative essay
Essay that purposes-to present a point & provide evidence to support it, formal structure.
Argumentative essay
Essay that may recount an incident or series of incidents, autobiographical, informality of the storytelling makes it less insistent than the argumentative essay, but more directed than the speculative essay
Narrative essay
Essay thats purpose is to explain & clarify ideas, narrative elements are a minor aspect, & subservient to that of explanation, argumentation is incidental.
Expository essay
Sees the world idealistically, as perfectible if not perfect.
Romanticism
Sees the world as it is, with healthy doses of both good & bad
Realism
Sees the world as imperfect, with evil often triumphing over good.
Naturalism
Very direct & does not necessarily employ humor
Naturalist
More subtle & employs humor
Satirist
Satirist's weapons include:
irony, parody, reversal or inversion, hyperbole, understatement, sarcasm, wit.
Satirist's most powerful weapon, & basis is inversion or reversal-doing or saying the opposite or the unexpected.
Irony
Poets write it to awaken the senses.
Poetry
Contest between secular love & love of God.
Elizabethans
Wordsworth, Coleridge, Keats, Shelley, Byron: Loved nature & saw God within nature.
Romantics
Tennyson, Blake: saw nature as a threat to mankind, & God, being replaced by the profit cash-nexus of the Industrial Age.
Victorians
T.S.Eliot, Pound, Yeats: seen God as dead & man as hollow, unwanted, & unsafe in an alien world.
The Moderns
Saw life as "an accident", a comic/cosmic joke, fragmented, purposeless. Often topics will be political (ie abortion, aparthied, etc.).
The Post-Moderns
Line of a poem.
Verse
A grouping of lines with a metrical order & often a repeated rhyme.
Stanza
Has the rhyming word at the end of the line, bringing the line to a definite stop but setting up for a rhyming word in another line.
End Rhyme
Includes at least one rhyming word within the line, often for the purpose of speeding the rhythm or making it linger.
Internal rhyme
Often jolts a reader who expects a perfect rhyme: poets use such a rhyme to express disappointment or a deliberate let-down.
Slant rhyme-aka half, near, or approximate rhyme
Uses one syllable words or stresses the final syllable to polysyllabic words, giving the feeling of strength & impact.
Masculine rhyme
Uses a rhyme of two or more syllables, the stress not failing upon the last syllable, giving feeling of softness & lightness
Feminine rhyme
Lines from the stanzas unrhymed & varying in metrical pattern.
Free verse
Unrhymed, but with a strict rhythm.
Blank verse
The pattern or measure of stressed accented words in a line of verse: note where stresses fall on syllables.
Meter
Rising & falling syllables.
Iambic rhythm
A line of poetry with 10 syllables of rising & falling stresses. 5 groups of 2 syllables, or 10 beats to the line.
Iambic Pentameter
The basic measuring unit in a line of poetry: footnames: anapest: marked by
u u /.
Foot
Four stresses to the line without attention to the unstressed syllables: employed by Old English poetry.
Accentual Meter
Figures of speech (meanings of words)
Figurative language
What a word means for us personally in our experience: is home- a house or apartment or dwelling that provides shelter for an individual or family.
Connotation
Compares two unlike things, feelings, or objects.
Metaphor
Compares 2 disimilar things but always uses the words "as if" (for a clause) or"like".
Simile
Referring to an object as a human with the personal pronoun sometimes, or possessing human attributes.
Personification
Involves the reader on the same plane as the writer.
Image
The repitition of consonants at the beginning of words that are next to each other or close by.
Alleration
The direct address of someone or something that is not present.
Apostrophe
The repitition of vowel sounds usually internally rather then initially.
Assonance
Deliberate anticlimax to make a definite point of view or draw.
Bathos
Very elaborate comparisons between unlikely objects.
Conceits
Similar to slant rhyme-the repitition of consonant sounds without the vowel sounds repeated.
Consonance
The word for word choice.
Diction
The running-on of one line of poetry into another.
Enjambment
Refers to a large overstatement often used to draw attention to a mark of beauty or a virtue or an action that the poet disagrees with.
Hyperbole
Plays an important role in voice or tone, inferring a discrepancy between what is meant & what is said.
Irony
The name for something closely R/T to it which then takes on larger meaning.
Metonymy
A device in which the word captures the sound.
Onomatopoeia
A form of paradox in which contradictory words are used next to each other.
Oxymoron
A situation or action or feeling that appears to be contradictory but on inspection turns out to be true or at least make sense.
Paradox
A play on words often for humorous or sarcastic effect.
Pun
When verbal irony is too harsh it moves into the sarcastic realm. It is the "lowest form of wit", but can be used to good effect in the tone of a poem.
Sarcasm
When a part of an object is used to represent the entire thing or visa versa.
Synedoche
The ordering of words of the speaker.
Syntax
The voice or attitude of the speaker.
Tone
Poems that address another person who remains silent.
Dramatic Monologues
The pattern or design of a poem.
Form
Lines that can be counted & shaped determined.
Closed form
Always has 14 lines.
Sonnet
Type of sonnet that is divided into 2 groups: octave (8 lines), may set up as a problem or proposition, the answer or resolution follows in the sestet after a turn or a shift, or sestet (6 lines).
Petrarchan
Type of sonnet that organizes the lines into 3 groups of 4 lines-quatrains & a couplet.
Shakespearean (aka English)
2 line stanza that usually rhymes with an end rhyme.
Couplet
A couplet that is firmly end-stopped & written in iambic pentameter.
Heroic couplet
A poem written totally in heroic couplets.
Mock-heroic
Has structure, that includes lonning translation will be in couplets & the meter regular with equal line lengths, repetitive, subject = great deeds of heros, theme = human grief or pride, divided loyalties.
Epic
Is anonymous & simple in theme, composed by working folk who originally could not read or write, a story in a song, revolves around love & hate, lust & murder, often rejected lovers, knights, & the supernatural, repetitive-repeated refrain holds the entire poem together, has 4 lines rhyming with lines 1 & 3 having 8 syllables & lines 2 & 4 having 6.
Ballads
Moves away from narrative poetry of earlier times, moves from story to emotion, "emotion recollected in tranquility".
Lyric
A lament for someone's death or the passing of a love or concept.
Elegy
Longer than elgey, deals with more profound areas of human life than simply death.
Ode
A courtly love poem structure from medevil times built on- tercets 5 3-line stanzas, followed by a quatrain.
Villanelle
6 6-line stanzas, with 6 end-words in a certain order, then repeats those 6 repeated words in a certain any order in a closing tercet.
Sestina
Short, a little cynical & always to the point.
Epigram
Rhyming poetry that becomes horribly distorted to fit the rhymes, not through skill, but the opposite.
Doggerel
Very skilled, 5 lines using the anapest meter.
Limericks
Originally a song or piece of music sung or played at dawn; a poem written to the dawn or about lovers at dawn.
Aubade
Lines are unrhymed & in iamblc pentameter.
Blank verse
A FORM of words that can be arranged in any order, not confined by any rhyme pattern or meter, lines break at any point, poets talk to the audience with all the "natural" breaks that the speaking voice will demonstrate, writers can employ rhyme, but there's no wrenching of the word "to make it rhyme", usually thought of as "modern" (post WWI).
Open form
Literature written to be performed, author's voice heard only through the stage directions & perhaps some supplementary notes, dialogue dominates the script, contains conflict which can be enacted immediately without alteration of the written words.
Drama
Means performed by an actor or actors free to used the entire stage & such theatrical devices as sets, costumes, makeup, special lighting, & props for support, public reader is not acting-this is the primary difference drama & other literary forms.
Enacted
Greek word for "imitation".
Mimesis
Asserts that a successful imitation is one which reproduces natural objects & actions in as realistic portrayal as possible.
Mimetic theory
A variation allowing the artist a feer,more individual stylized approach, form must be consistent with itself (any form is permissible).
Expressive theory
Sequence of events; organized collection of events.
Plot
The revealing of whatever information we need in order to understand the impending conflict.
Exposition
Requires 2 opposite forces, generates the actions which makes the characters' worlds worse before they can get better.
Conflict
Whatever presents an element capable of altering the action's direction.
Complication
A complication of related events leading to a culmination, progression of actions leading to the crisis is inevitable.
Crisis
Follows the crisis, gives the play its concluding boundary.
Resolution (denouement)
Essential to the plot's success, fictional characters always possess the potential to move us.
Character
Type of play that primarily aims to amuse us with a happy ending, comedies created deviations from accepted normalcy.
Comedy
Low comedy intended to make us laugh by means of series of exaggerated, unlikely situations that depend less on plot & character than on gross absurdities, sight gags, & coarse dialogue.
Farce
When the action triggers our sympathy for the characters, we feel less protected from the incongruities.
Tragi-comedy
An imitation of complex actions which should arouse an emotional response combining fear & pity, progression from prosperity to adversity.
Tragedy
A tragic flaw; the fraility that leads the tragic hero to make an error in judgement which initiates the reversal in his fortunes, causing his death or the death of others or both.
Hamartia
The dire consequences of the tragic hero.
catastrophe
the emotional reaction of the audience, classical tragedy insists that the universe is ordered, if truth or universal law is ignored, the results are devastating, causing the audience to react emotionally; simultaneously, the tragic results prove the existence of truth, thereby reassuring our faith that existence is sensible.
Catharsis
A dramatic adaptation of the Crucifixion as told in the gospels.
Passion play
a dramatic perspective of some event or series of events identified with recognized historical figures, have seldom risen above the level of patriotic whitewash & political propaganda.
History play
Drama, a seeking of truth through direct observation using 5 senses, shows everyday people in everyday situations.
Realism
Variation of realism that shows how the scientific principles of heredity & environment have shaped society, especially in depicting the plights of lower classes.
Naturalism
Variation of realism, denied realism premise that real world could be objectively perceived; irritated a disconnected dream-like world filled with psychological images at odds with the tangible world surrounding it.
Expressionism
Attempts to imitate life directly; expressionism is abstract & often relies on symbolism.
Naturalism