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14 Cards in this Set

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Anaerobes:
(1) natural habitat
(2) def colonization resistance
(3) physiologic role
(4) infections seen w/...?
(1) mucocutaneous
(2) prevent colonization of more pathogenic bacteria
(3) vit K, bile production
(4) antibiotics, mucosal disruption
Clostridium tetani

Features:
(1) gram stain
(2) sporulation
(3) environ habitat
(4) O2 requirement
(1) gram-pos
(2) yes spores
(3) soil
(4) strict anaerobe
Clostridium tetani

Clinical Manifestations:
(1) name of tetanus toxin
(2) mech of toxin entry
(3) mech of toxin action
(4) clinical sx
(5) treatment
(6) vaccine
(1) tetanospasmin
(2) presyn lower motor neuron -> retrograde to soma of inhib itory cells
(3) degrade synaptobrevin -> no neurotrans docking
(4) muscle rigidity
(5) benzodiazepenes
(6) tetanus toxoid
Clostridium botulinum

Features:
(1) gram strain
(2) sporulation
(3) toxins
(4) O2 requirement
(1) gram-pos
(2) yes spores
(3) toxins A to G
(4) strict anaerobe
Clostridium botulinum

Clinical Manifestations:
(1) toxin acts on what part of CNS?
(2) mech of action
(3) clincal subtypes
(4) clincial sx
(5) treatment
(1) periph NMJ + ANS
(2) prevent Ach release
(3) foodborne, infant, wound
(4) symmetric DESCENDING weakness; intact sensory
(5) antitoxin, wound debridement
Clostridium perfringens

Features:
(1) natural habitats
(2) O2 requirement
(3) gas production
(4) infections/clincal sx
(1) soil, vertebrate GIs
(2) aerotolerant
(3) H2, N2 gas
(4) enteritis necroticans (pig bel),
gas gangrene,
food poisoning
Clostridium perfringens

Pig Bel (enteritis necroticans):
(1) Endemic in which country?
(2) clincal presentation
(1) Papua New Guinea
(2) segmental GI necrosis
Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene):
(1) clinical features
(2) two toxins + functions
(1) rapid muscle necrosis, no bleeding
(2) α-toxin = tissue necrosis,
Ɵ-toxin = hemolysis
Clostridium septicum:
(1) common infection
(2) usu pts
(3) 80% association w/...?
(1) Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhilitis)
(2) necrosis, hemorrhage of cecum
(3) underlying GI malignancy
Clostridium difficile:
(1) associated sx
(2) risk factors
(1) nosocomial diarrhea
(2) antimicrobials,
hospital stay,
elderly pts
Bacteroides:
(1) gram stain
(2) synergy
(3) virulence
(4) syndromes
(1) gram-neg (only one we learned!)
(2) usu co-infect w/ other species
(3) capsule, pili;
-ases (hyalorunidase, collagenase, neuraminidase, heparinase)
(4) Lemierre = neck
Vincent = floor of mouth
Ludwig = gingivitis
Anaerobic Cocci:
(1) gram stain
(2) species #1
(3) species #2
(1) gram-pos
(2) Peptostreptococcus = abscess of brain, lung, female GU
(3) Veillonella = usu contaminant; osteomyelitis, periodontitis
Gram-Positive Non-Spore Anaerobes:
(1) examples
(2) pathogenicity
(3) natural habitats
(1) Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, Bifidobacterium
(2) rarely pathogenic
(3) skin, oral, bowel, GU mucosa
Actinomyces israelii:
(1) gram stain
(2) O2 requirement
(3) normal colonization
(4) classic sx
(5) assoc diseases
(6) Treatment
(1) gram-pos
(2) microaerophilic
(3) vagina, colon, mouth
(4) wooden lesion, slow growth, sulfur granules, lumpy jaw
(5) oral-cervicofacial,
thoracic = chest wall mass,
abd = can lead to sinus tract,
pelvic = IUCD
(6) surgery + antibiotics for 6-12 mos