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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What Anaerobes are most commonly associated with disease?
Clostridium
Bacteroides
Fusobacterum
Peptostreptococcus
What other Anaerobes are medically significant?
Prevotell
Veillonella
Porphyromonas
Actinomyces
What type of Anaerobic bacteria is most associated with mixed diseases state?
Bacteriodes
Peptostreptococcus
Fusobacterium
Facultative
What are the common causes of Intra-Abdominal Infection and what bacteria?
From bowel perforation caused from surgury or injury.
Generally forms an abscess or necrotizing lesions
Bacteriode Fragilus
Peptostreptococcus
Fusobacterium
Facultative
Pulmonary Infections
Includes abscesses, necrotizing pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, aspiration from organisms or oropharynx
Peptostreptococcus
Fusobacterium Nucleatum
Prevoltella Melaniogenica
What are some causes of Pelvic Infections, both baterial and other?
Either vagina or uterus as a result of gynecologic surgury, malignancy or normal flora in a sterile area
Prevotella Bivia
Prevotella Disiens
Fusobacterium
Bacteroides
Brain Abscesses
Organisms from oral cavity which disseminate from blood across the BBB or Injury from a break in the skull
Peptostreptococcus
Bacteroides
Fusobacterium
Prevotella
What is characterized by diseases of the Skin and Soft Tissue?
Characterized by necrotic tissue, foul smell and gas
Tissue destruction and Abscess formation
What type of anaerobic bacteria is only associated with the mouth?
Veillonella
Only Gram Negative Cocci
Opportunistic
Seen in human bite caused infections
What type of anaerobic bacteria causes gas gangrene of the skin and soft tissue?
Clostridum Perfringens
What type of anaerobic bacteria is most associated with periodontal infection?
Porphyromonas
What type of bacteria is commonly associated with bacteremia?
Bacillus fragilis
What are some common characteristics of Actinomyces?
Commonly associated with mouth an infections following dental waork
Lesions resemble subcutaneous mycoses
Chronic Lesions with pus; pus contains colonies called sulfur granules
What type of bacteria are Bacteroides associated with and what type of infections do they cause?
Most common cause of serious anaerobic infections; Mixed flora; Anaerobic version of E. Coli
Gram Negative
Many been changed to Porphyromonas & Prevotella
Bacteroides Fragilis
Most important pathogen in this group
One of the most common causes of abdominal infection
Has a polysaccharide capsule
Gram negative but LPS is less toxic
What is Porphyromonas associated with and what is its virulence factor?
Associated with gingivitis and dental absecesses
Virulence polysaccharide capsule
Prevotella Melaninogenica
Associated with infections above the abdomen
Gingivitis most common, Brain Abscess, Pulmonary
Found in bowel
LPS
Prevotella Bivia
Associted with gynecologic infections
LPS
Found in bowel
Prevotella Disiens
Associted with gynecologic infections
LPSFound in bowel
Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium
Gram Positive Bacilli
Opportunistic
May just contaminate clinical specimens, very common
Not clear if they have a contribution to pathogenesis
Found in bowel
Fusobacterium
Most common Anaerobe
Gram negative rods with pointed ends
Predominate in diseasse replacing normal flora
Brain abcesses, oral, pelvic
Lactobacillus
Either Facultative or obligate
Protects agasint bacterial vaginosis; fermentation of sugar produces lactic acid
ABX can wipe out increasing risk of infection
Presence in urine indicats infection
Normal flora of Genital-Urinary Tract
Lactobacillus, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella Bivius and Prevotella Disiens
Propionobacterium Acnes
Part of normal flora of skin
Opportnistic pathogen
Contributes to Acne of the face
Bacterial Vaginosis
Foul smelling discharge
Elevated pH
Loss of Lactobacillus/increase in Prevotella
Two organisms responsibe Gardnerella & Mobiluncus
"Clue Cells" on gram stain
Fishy smell undor KOH; distinguishes it from yeast infection
What disease is associated with the organism Mobiluncus?
Bacterial vaginosis along with a facultative organism
Gardnerella Vaginalis
Clue cells seen in gram stain and Fishy amine smell under KOH plate
What is Peptostreptococcus a version of, what type of bacteria, where is it found, what disease is it associated with, and what is it often mixed with?
aAnaerobic version of streptococci
Gram Positive cocci
Normal flora of mouth and colon
Associated with peridontal and peritonitis, and many other
Often mixed w/ Bacteroides or facultative
Veillonella
ONLY gram negative cocci
ONLY seen in normal flora of mouth
Opportunistic
Seen in human bite caused infection
Produces abscesses of sinuses, tonsils & brain
What tpe of bacteria is Clostridium, where does it come from, what type of toxin does it have?
Gram positive rods, forms SPORES
Exogeneous sources; soil, water, sewage (unique)
Some presentin GI
Produces wide range of toxins: neuro, entero, hemolysis
Either very sick or not at all
C. Perfringes
Spores NOT usually seen
Produces double zone hemolysis when plated
Associated with food poisening, necrotizing enteritis, cellulitis, gas gangrene, septicemia
Type A toxin with clostridium
Causes most infections; wide spreadin the environment
Produces Alpha Toxin
All toxins associated with some type of tissue distruction
Enterotoxin
Toxin of the gut
Responsible for food poisoning, usually stimulates fluid loss and osmotic diarrhea
Produced by some Type A
C. Tetani
Spores seen at end of rod give drumstick appearance
Part of DPT vaccine
Found in soil, animals, most cases result from puncture wounds/lacerations
Two toxins Tetanolysin, and Tetanospasm; which cause spasmogenic effect
Intubation seveal days - weeks
How does Tenaospasm, Heat liable neurotoxin of C. Tetani, work and what does it cause?
A-B toxin; B binds and A has the toxin activity
A chain enters the neuron and travels of the axon
Released from post-synaptic dendrites, crosses the synaptic cleft and enters presynaptic terminals
Blocks the release of GABA, which causes spastic paralysis
Tetanolysin - O2 liable hemolysin of C. Tetani
Signifigance unknown b/c inactivated by O2
What type of spores, toxin are associated with C. Botulinum and what does it cause?
Spores seen at end of rod; NOT very distinct loking
Heat liable neurotoxin;
Causes flacid paralysis - Oppisite of tetanus
Most powerful biological toxin
What are the three ways you can get C. Botulinum?
Foodbourne: From home canned foods not properly sealed
Infant: associated with consumption of spores in honey
Wound: very rare
Decribe how the heat liable neurotoxin of C. Botulinum works
Very specific for cholinergic nerves
Prevents release of acetycholine
Block stimuli causes flacid paralysis - Oppisite of tetanus
Describe the path of the heat liable neurotoxin of C. Botulinum and when does the anti-toxin need to be given by?
Absorbed from GI > Reached Neuromuscular juntion > Cholinergic Blockade
Anti-toxin needs to be given BEFORE it reaches the neuromuscular junction
When do sympotoms from C. Botulinum occur and what are they?
8-36 hours after ingestion
Most powerful toxin known
DIZZINESS, BLURRED VISION, weakness, dilated pupils, inability to swallow, generalized descending weakness, respiratory paralysis
Where is C. Difficle, what does it cause, and how is it associated with Abx treatment?
Part of normal intestinal flora
ABX treatment allow for overgrowth or acquisition
Nosocomial pathogen
Responsible for ABX dependent gastrointestinal disease; from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis
Pseudomembranous Colitis
Cuased by C. Difficile
Promoted by ABX b/c wipes out notmal flora allowing C. Diff to porliferate
What ABX are asspociated with the spread of Pseudomembranous Colitis and which treat it?
Cephalosporins, Clindamycin, Penicillins; allow C. Diff to spread
Treate with: Aminoglycosides or Vancomycin, Metronidazole
Characteristics of the pathogen for C. Diff
Elaboration of toxin A & B which mediate cytoskelton dstruction in target cells
Mucosal injury and inflammation leave pt. susceptible to relapse
ACID resistant spores which resist bile
Grows thruogh lumen of the colon
Symptoms of C. Diff
Onset of sympotoms typically after 5-10 days of ABC treatment
Include: FEVER, LEUKOCYTOSIS, ABDOMINAL PAIN, HYPOALBUMINEMIA, nausea, malaise, anorexia, dehydration
C. Septicum
Rare
If found in blood think MALIGNANCY
Work-up for possible cancer
F. Necrophorum
Liver Abscess
Trench mouth
Lemierres syndrome
Trench Mouth
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
Associated with F. Necrophorum
Lemierres Syndrome
Within lateral pharyngeal space;
Visualized using CAT, pt. looks normal
Associated with F. Necrophorum
F. Nucleatum
Most common of species
Orofacial infections
Ludwigs Angina
Ludwigs Angina
Infection of the tissues of the floor of the mouth; inflammation of underlying C.T. of the skin
Associated wtih F. Nucleatum
What must you differentiate with C. Diff and what are some complications?
Toxic megalcolon, colonic perforation, recurant CDAD
Must differentiate between ischemic colitis and diverticulitis
Which of the two ischemic colitis and diverticulitis is taken with ABX
Diverticulitis, if diagnosed wrong the other form will get WORSE with ABX treatment
Metronidazole ABX
Has NO EFFECT on aerobic gram (-) rods
Can not use alone with mixed infections
Treatment option for C. Diff
Treatment for Anaerobic Bacteria
Clindamycin
Good for Gram (+) Anaerobes
Promotes C. Diff proliferation
Chloramphenicol
Higher toxcity