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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lavender top
CBC (most species
Red top Rube
Phenobarbitil, Digoxin or Bromide tests
Green top
CBC for bird & reptile
Light blue top
coagulation tests
Serum Separator
routine serum chems
Atropine is used as a pre-anesthetic o help control or prevent seizure activity
False it is diazepam that is used to prevent seizures
Deine Pain
unpleasant sensory or emotional experience associaed w/ actual or potentia tissue damage
Define anlgesia
absence of pain in presence of stimuli that would normally be painful;
Define anesthesia
absense of all sensory modaalities; the inabiliy to precece painful stimuli
Define hyperesthesia
Increase sensitivity to stimulation -
ex. Pain during inflammation
Define multimodal or balanced analgesia
Use of 2 or more analgesic agents that differ in their mechanism of action to achieve a more effective analgesia
Define nociception
The reception, conduction & CNS procession of nerve signals generated by stimulation of nociceptore
Define nociceptor
naked afferent nerve endings preferentially sensitive to a noxious stimulus or a stimulus that would be npxious if prolongued
Define pre-emptive analgesia
est. of analgesia before the onset of painful stimuli

Prevents wind-up
`Define referred pain
pain felt in a body part other thatn that in which it originates

EX. pain in arm during a heart attack
Define somatic pain
From the skin - SQ, muscles, bone & joints

Trans by A, delta & C fibers

Easily localized - stabbing, throbbing or aching
Define visceral pain
From internal organs.

Trans by C fibers

More diff. to localize - cramping, burning, ganwinf

EX? intestinal discomfort
Define wind-up
buildup of chemical mediators during sx that animal becomes aware of pro-op.

Need more analgesic
4 aspects of physiology of pain
1. Transduction -Nociceptors detect noxious stimuli (ex. Heat) & convert stimulli to nerve impulses
2. Transmission - A delta & C fibers conduct the impulse thru teh PNS into the spinal cord
3. Modulation - amplification or inhibition of stimuli within the dorsal horns cells of the spinal cord
4. Perception - in the cerebral cortex
Classifications of pain
1. Intense - mild, moderate, severe
2. duration - acute, chronic
How do we know if a pet is happy
Dog- et, shake, yawn

Cat - eat, stretch, sleep curled up & yawn
Methods of pain control
1. endorphins
2. nonpharmacological - esp nusing care
3. pahrmacological
Types of opiods used in analgesia
1. morphine
2. meperedine (demerol
3. oxymorphone
4. hydromorphone
5. fentanyl
Types of Opioid agonist/ antagonists
1. Butorphanol (torbutrol)
2. Buprenorphine (Buprenes
Drugs that inhibit transduction
2. Opioids
3.local anesthetics
Drugs that inhibit transmission
1. Locals inhibit Na channels
2. Alpha 2 agonists
Drugs that inhibit perception
1. Anesthetic
2. opioid
3. alpha 2 agonists
4. bensodiazepams
Drugs that inhibit modulation - central sensation
1. local anesthetic
2. opioid or alpha 2
3.tricyclic anti- spleptic
4. cholinersteraseinhibitios
5.NMDA antagonists
What level do NSAIDs work
tissue level preventing the production of prostaglandins that mediate inflamation & pain
What level does lidocaine work
block transmission of pain impulses by sensory nerves
What level do opioids work
multi sites in brain & spinal cord to diminish PERCEPTION of pain
Which of the ff anesthetic agents provid some analgesia in post-op
a. Iso
b. Propofol
c. thiopental
d. ketamine
D. ketamine
Visceral pain arises from damage to:
a. muscle
b. skin
c. nerves
d. internal organs
d. internal orgains
Pain receptors are called
If you wait until an animal shows signs of pain b/f tx w; analgesic, a higher dose will be reguired

Animals do not show pain like humans b/c
Prey - so hide it
Dose of injectible morphine for a dog is higher than a cat

Compared w/ morphine, meperidine has a _____ duration of effect
Which of the following is an agonist/antagonist opioid
q. oxymorphone
b. meperidine
c. butorphanol
d. fentanyl
C. butorphanol
onset of a fentynal patch is
delayed onset in both c&d
NSAID that is safe for cats w/moderate ortho pain post-op
NSAIDS may interfere w/ action of drugs to tx cardiac dzq
Reversing agent for morphine?
Ketamine is useful in txx what part of the body
Potential side effects of opioids
1. GI stimulation
2. bradycardia
3. pantin
4. increassed sensitivity to noise
5.increased intracranial pressure
7. mis=osis in dog
8.mydriasis incat
Which opioid does NOT cause excitement in a cat
Drug interactions with fentanyl
DO NOT MIX w/agonist/antagonist like butorphanol
What is a GREAY DRUG in the angonist/antagonist family
Buprenorphin (Buprenex)
Which opioids angonist/antagonist last a long time
Buprenex - long duration but delayed onset
How do NSAID work
block production of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX)
How are NSAID eliminated
by metabolism in conjunction w/ liver, ff by renal
NSAID side effects
GI ulcer
renal toxicity
imparied platelet aggreggaton
lier damage
NSAID agents
Combo w/ NSAID
ex. codeine 3
Contraindicated if pre--existing tachycardia
What has a longest lasting analgesic effect
bprenex of buprenorphine
Advantage & disadvantage of propofol
1. smooth induction & recovery

2. short acting
Propofol provides good analgesia