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### 29 Cards in this Set

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 What is the definition of kinetics? The study of forces associated with the motion of the body. The forces that produce or change motion. What is the definition of kinematics? The description of the motion as it relates to time, displacement, velocity, acceleration and space factors of a system's motion. The geometry of motion. What is the definition of torque? The turning effect of a force. What is the definition of a lever? A rigid bar that turns about an axis as a result of force against a resistance. What is a force moment arm? The distance between the force and the axis. What is a resistance moment arm? The distance between the resistance and the axis. What is inertia? A system's resistance to change, to maintain the current state of motion. What is Newton's first law of motion? A body in motion tends to remain in motion at the same speed in a straight line unless acted on by force, a body at rest tends to remain at rest unless acted on by a force. What is Newton's 2nd law of motion? Law of Acceleration. A change in the acceleration of the body occurs in the same direction as the force that caused it. The change in acceleration is directly proportional to the force causing it and inversely proportional to the mass of the body. What is Newton's 3rd Law? Law of Reaction. For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction. What is genu varum? Bowlegged, tension on lateral muscles/ligaments and medial joint. What is genu valgus? Knock kneed, tension on medial muscles/ligaments and lateral joint. What is genu recurvatum? Hyperextension of the knee, stresses anterior joint and tenses posterior muscles/ligaments. What is the center of gravity? The point at which all the body's mass and weight is equally balanced or equally distributed in all directions without a tendency to rotate. What is the difference between force & momentum? Forces either push or pull on an object in an attempt to affect motion or shape. Momentum is the quantity of motion which is equal to the mass x the velocity. The greater the momentum, the greater the resistance to change in the inertia or state of motion. What does a greater Q angle mean? A greater Q angle lends to femoral varus, a knock knee, predominately in females because of their wider pelvis. What is the structure of an open kinetic link? A system of links has a base (fixed end) and a free end (open end). The more massive segments are at the proximal end and the less massive segments are at the free end. An internal torque is applied to the base segment to initiate the system's motion and give the entire system angular momentum. What is Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID)? The body will gradually adapt very specifically to the various stresses and overloads to which it is subjected. What is flat back? Decreased thoracic and lumbar curves. What is forward head carriage? Due to tight SCMs and suboccipital muscles. Person displays upper cervical extension and lower cervical flexion. What is toeing in? Pigeon-toed, the legs are internally rotated at hip level, the patella face inward, the feet point inward and there is usually pronation of the feet or there is toeing in related to medial torsion of the tibia or sometimes the problem lies in the foot alone. What is toeing out? May be the result of external rotation of the entire extremity from hip level or tibial torsion in which the shaft of the tibia has developed a rotation or may be a fault of the foot itself. What are the phases of stance in a gait cycle? Heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, toe off. What is Cobb's Angle? A method to measure scoliosis using an x-ray. What is gait? Gait is a style of walk that involves not only the legs but the trunk and arms. What is step? Distance of heel strike one limb to heel strike opposite limb, 1/2 of a stride length. What is stride? Distance of gait cycle (heel strike to heel strike same foot). What is stance phase? Foot in contact with ground; heel strike to toe off, 60% of gait cycle. What is cadence? Speed of walking; number of steps per minute - 70 slow 130 fast.