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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the divisions of the central nervous system?
Brain & spinal cord
What are the divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic nervous system
What is white matter in the CNS?
Tracts of myelinated nerve fibers
What types of fibers are present in the brain?
Commissural-connect 2 hemispheres
Association-transmit impulses within a single hemisphere
Projection-tie the cortex to the rest of the hemisphere
Where does the spinal cord end?
L1
What is the function of the thalamus?
Sorts and edits info
The diencephalon encloses which ventricle?
3rd ventricle
What are the directions of the brain fibers?
Projection - vertical
Association - horizontal
Commissural - horizontal
What does the central sulcus divide?
Frontal and parietal lobes
What are the parts of the brain?
Cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem
What are islands of gray matter?
Basal ganglia
What are the parts of the brain stem in order from top to bottom?
Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
What are the functional areas of the cerebrum?
Motor, sensory and association
What does the motor area do?
Controls muscle/glands
What does the sensory area do?
Interprets sensory impulses
What does the association area do?
Connects sensory and motor
What connects the cerebral hemispheres?
Corpus collosum
What does Broca's area do?
Coordinates the tongue and vocal cords to speak
What does the affective language area do?
It's involved in non-verbal, emotional components of language
What does Werneke's area do?
Written and spoken language
What part of the brain is responsible for kinesthesia?
Cerebellum
Where is the main visceral control center?
Hypothalamus
Where is the center for vomiting, coughing and sneezing?
Medulla oblongata
Where are the vital centers?
Medulla oblongata
What are the vital centers called?
Cardiovascular (cardiac, vasomotor) & respiratory
What is the definition of decussation?
Cross over to the opposite side
Where is the auditory area located?
Temporal lobe
What do the association areas do?
Communicate with the motor cortex and other sensory association areas to analyze, recognize and act on sensory inputs
What does the gnostic area do?
Integrates all incoming signals into a single thought or understanding
In the spinal cord, how do the fibers run?
Ascending(sensory)
Descending(motor)
Across(commissural)
What part of the brain stem contains relays for visual and auditory stimuli?
Midbrain
What structure separates the brain into hemispheres?
Longitudinal fissure
What is the definition of paralysis?
Loss of motor function
What is the definition of paresthesias?
Sensory loss
Ascending tracts carry what type of info?
Sensory
Descending tracts carry what type of info?
Motor
What do pyramidal tracts do?
Control appendicular skeletal muscle on the opposite side of the body
What do extrapyramidal tracts do?
Control the muscles of the axial skeleton
What is flaccid paralysis?
LMN injury, PNS damage
What is spastic paralysis?
UMN injury, CNS damage
The falx cerebri and cerebelli are formed by what?
Dural folds
What makes cerebrospinal fluid?
Choroid plexuses
Where does cerebrospinal fluid circulate?
In and around the brain and spinal cord
What do dural sinuses do?
Drain blood from the brain to internal jugular veins
What is considered a major reflux center?
Spinal cord
What are the respiratory centers in the pons?
Pneumotaxic center and apneustic center
What does the pneumotaxic center do?
Helps to maintain the normal rhythm of breathing
What does the apneustic center do?
Prolongs inspiration