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82 Cards in this Set

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The American Dream
The American Dream has three distinct characteristics; one being the fact that it is egalitarian. Egalitarian, was defined by James Truslow Adams, the author of Epic America as the "dream of a better, richer and happier life for all our citizens in every rank." A second aspect of it would be its' generational aspect that was perpetuated by the idea that children must outlive successes of their parents. The third characteristic is that this meaning can change over time and different shifts. For example, in 1933 the vision of the American Dream matures into a shared vision; a societal dream that opens out as something available as a communal good. In 1941 there was an emphasis on personal security attainable for hardworking modest everyday people. In the 1950's this image of the perfect suburban family and this idea of Middle Class Perfection was coming about. Also this whole idea of home ownership became a proponent factor of the American Dream.
The Southern California Dream
This is the result of the transformation of the American Dream. Kamp refers to this repeatedly as the landscape of Southern California being one site that articulates the American Dream. Some characteristics of the Southern California Dream include; beautiful beach front properties, the hollywood image dreamscape, living in the present enjoying life, fame, stardom, fortune, extreme success, this constant image of sunshine and perfect weather in a place where it never rains, fancy cars, status and last but definitely not least, good health.
L.A. & Split Power Structures (Davis)
There is a lot of contradiction of who and what were the popular images of power in the Los Angeles from its' beginning up until today. The power structures of L.A. at the time consisted of an influence from all of the following groups and people; the L.A. Times, oil and bank companies, department stores and most notably the Otis-Chandler dynasty. This dynasty was "one of the most centralized and militarized municipal power structures in the United States." (Davis p.101) Under the time of this dynasty the, pioneer Jews were expelled from the area and stripped of their voice and power, the creation of open shops began and most importantly the region was looted by one great real estate speculation at time, one after another.
In the 1920's and 30's there was a rise in the entertainment and aircraft industries.
Anglos and Rancho Economy
The Local Anglos displaced Mexican landowners by marrying the daughters of ranch owners (haciendados). It was a Nonviolent dispossession. Example: ‘Don’Abel Ste- arns.This was a TREND: other Anglos followed suit and this is how the landed Mexican families were displaced from their land. Anglo Americans were mixing into the families & taking over the property deeds, pushing the Mexicans out. There was a major Emphasis on land acquisition. There also came about an Issue of irrigation – water problem, Debt, stock destroyed, long litigation for deeds and Anglos were stuck.These caused Mexican families to loose control.
Don Abel Stearns
Arrived from Massachusetts, and married daughter of a cattle farmer. Start of a trend of Anglos marrying Mexican American daughters and taking over their farms. Rancho economy Americanized by intermarriage and acquisition of land. Became wealthiest man in Alto, California. Allowed other Anglos to increase in power and wealth. Bought Rancho Los Alamitos. However, after a devastating drought, most of his cattle were killed and he lost his property.
Northern Carpetbaggers: 1860s-1870s
Rich merchants who came to LA from San Francisco after the collapse of the cattle industry, mostly bankers and financiers. German jewish merchants in San Francisco allied with Irish americans. They began to buy up the bankrupt ranchos and this culminated with the liquidation of Stearn’s estate, using them for their own profit. It was an ETHNIC alliance and there was an alliance between Irish and Jewish Americans. This was the moment in which Jewish Americans really had a vie for power in LA (in purchasing these bankrupt ranchos) Primary people to profit: Isaias W. Hellman and John Downy (his partner).
Isaias W. Hellman
Jewish American Banker-founder of USC. Revived economy in LA by setting up banks. One of the most famous northern carpetbaggers in S. California History. He was one of the chief profiteers from the sale of the ranchos. He was LA's greatest Gilded Age financiers. He also opened doors of his 1st bank. Became a transportation baron with Huntington
Westside Development vs. Downtown
West-side was on the rise with suburbanization, real estate speculation mortgage capital, etc while Downtown kept its traditional interests in the Chamber of Com- merce, City Hall, LA Times, the Port of San Pedro, etc and perceived the Westside as a threat to its' power.
Hollywood Glamour/Rise of Studios
Studios arose by attracting tourists and future actors and producers which created a glamorous image of Hollywood. Jewish Americans who worked in the movie industry to earn money created the nuevo riche and were also a threat to downtown LA.
Citrus Culture
Los Angeles was Marketed and packaged as a commodity under the illusion of this “citrus culture.” It was a marketing scheme to attract middle class families
from the Mid-west. In fact LA is a Semi arid dessert.
Growth Machine (Fulton)
The Growth machine was associated with the power of water. Once Mulholland was able to construct the aqueduct, LA would continue to grow. The Met
was able to occupy different cities and continue to expand the boundaries of LA. Water
stimulated expansion of the city by extending the boundary lines of Los Angeles.
Los Angeles Intellectuals
Some examples of Los Angeles Intellectuals include:
• Boosters
• The Debunkers
• The Noirs
• The Exiles
• The Sorcerers
• Communards
• Mercenaries
The Boosters
LA built upon real estate capitalism. A group that developed in the late 19th, early 20th century who wrote propaganda to support the growth of L.A. and boosted L.A.’s reputation. Created Open Shop-attracted wealthy residents. Required continuous myth making and promotion. Suppressed indigenous peoples.
Examples: Arroyo Set, Charles Fletcher Lummis, Harrison Gray Otis, Harry Chandler, and Christine Sterling
Charles Fletcher Lummis
A notable booster who walked miles to L.A. from Cincinnati when hired by L.A. Times; was editor of the L.A. Times and worked to attract affluent residents from the East and Midwest; prevented unions from organizing; became wealthy primarily through real estate
Colonel Harrison Gray Otis; Harry Chandler; “Old Guard”
These were notable boosters who promoted the image of L.A. through the L.A. Times newspaper; Otis owned newspaper and Harry Chandler was hired by Otis when he came West; Chandler married Otis’ daughter and came to own the newspaper and he made a fortune in the largest real estate empire in U.S.; the “Old Guard” included af- fluent people that boosted reputation of L.A. such as heads of big banks, oil companies, and department stores
The First Boom
1885 first Real Estate boom. The primary goal of public (and later private) trans- portation in L.A. was to lure residents to suburban areas where they could purchase property. (Quote on pg. 128) Didn't grow from radiating center. Real estate agents were focused on selling outlying areas. Transportation used as tools to promote real estate development in LA, not to move
people to and from places (distinguishes LA from other cities).
Arroyo Set
Boosters under influence of Charles Lummis. Created Magazine called Old West. Promoted LA as new-rome, anglo-saxon promised land. Wrote propaganda to support the growth of LA and its image as an Anglo Saxon promised land built on an inferior ‘Spanish’ Culture. Exported this image of LA to attract middle class residents from the Midwest

Transformed LA from small town into thriving metropolis
Open Shop
Created by the Boosters. inability of unions to organize in LA; used in order to attract affluent residents (potential investors) from the mid West because they don't have to worry about people unionizing
Free Harbor Fight/League Free Harbor Fight
The Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce vs. Huntington and the Southern Pacific. Huntington built a wharf in Santa Monica to compete with the existing facilities in San Pedro, so Los Angeles took Huntington to court. The Chamber won and made Los Angeles a free harbor
Southern Pacific Railroad
Huntington and Hellman created this to promote finance and consolidated by Otis and Chandler to create a monopoly
Louis Adamic
He led the debunkers and worked to expose class and labor tensions. He was deeply concerned with the plight of industrial workers in LA. His magazine, American Worker, foresaw some of the future class violence and outbreaks that take place in L.A. He chronicled the bombing of the LA Times in 1910 in his book, Dynamite, painting a demonic portrait of Otis.
Carey McWilliams
Also led debunks and was associated with racial genocide and class inequity, some labor issues. Carey was best known of his writing in social issues in SoCal, his worked debunked the boosters mission myth, by recovering the Mexican roots of CA history
Debunkers
Writers and artists who opposed the ideas of the Boosters, Led by Louis Adamic (1889-1951)
Primary contribution was his emphasis on the centrality of class violence in LA. Worked to expose class and labor tensions. Debunked myth of LA as a city of opportunity
Not all debunking were literary, some were artists

Focused on: Exploitation of labor, gender inequality, and racial violence

Notable Debunkers: Louis Adamic, Carey McWilliams
Noirs
Noir genre was established during the Great Depression, during the collapse of the American middle class dream. Overlooks the plight of inner city workers and racial oppression. Notable example of film noir: James M. Cain’s 1934 novel turned film The Postman Always Rings Twice. The collapse of the American Dream for the middle class. Trying to critique system within the system
Exiles
Writers, artists, musicians, and intellectuals who fled from Nazi Europe to LA during WWII. Critiqued the industrialization of culture in LA (resented the Hollywood Studio Industry, their own intellectual labor, for its “counterfeit.” Writings primarily used by student activists)
Critique against industrialization, LA was unfit.
Saw city of LA as city of Capital, furnished and superficial. Did not see LA as a nightmare as the Noirs did. Notable Exile: Herbert Marcuse-political philosopher, argued that society under capitalism was unfree
Sorcerers
Scientists, corporations, scientology, and the aerospace industry that crystallized around Cal tech to recreate Booster myth of Los Angeles as the right of the Anglo dreamNo contradiction of the Anglo dream
Communards
Musicians, artists, writers whose work was in tune with race and class isues Artistically avant-garde, dystopian vision, critique of sorcerers, not part of the Hollywood scene. African American artists closely tied to community concerns. Notable command: the Omette Coleman Quartet:
Wanted to form a music style called free jazz: improvisational freedom. Wasn’t allowed in white dominated jazz scene. Called attention to way African Americans were excluded. Synthesized blues and bebop in album entitled “Something Else”
Mercenaries
Utopian-generating high culture view of LA. Cultural industry for Los Angeles. Includes curators, designers, professors, and architects controlled by power brokers in the city, either real estate developers or universities. Pushed for academic and cultural institutions in certain locations. Restricted by finances. Commissioned to build a 'cultural superstructure' for LA as it emerges as a world city (MOCA, Getty). Problem: focused only on elite parts of LA. Signifies necessity to rehabilitate art centers within urban sectors, not just westside. Notable mercenary, Richard Meier, architect-Getty Museum, inflates property values of west side
Olvera St; Christine Sterling
Tried to replicate a mythical Mexican culture Christine Sterling (1881-1963): Organized and managed Olvera St., Booster Organized and managed Olvera St., Booster
California’s mission became Sterling’s vision of the golden age
Very idealized vision-romantic, wealthy
Goes back to LA as a commodity and to buy it as the American Dream
By restoring the crumbling missions, building red tile roof homes (Spanish style architecture)
Christine Sterling’s creation of Olvera Street, relied on the LA boosters, she tied tourism to real estate development, promoted Olvera Street as a major attraction to Los Angeles, created a for profit organiz- ation
Mexican Repatriation
Forced migration of approximately one million Mexicans and Mexican Americans to Mexico between 1929-1937. 60% of people deported were actually children born in the United States. It emerged out of the Great Depression and was a widespread assumption that Mexican Americans were usurpers of American Jobs. Many opted to leave in light of the anti-Mexican climate, but others were coerced to leave. Many accumulated in border towns. In 2005, California passed an apology act in which it officially recognized unconstitutional tactics of coerced deportation of Mexican Americans.
The Racialization of Space
An area or space is defined according to race. Things leading to the racialization were residential restrictive covenants, lack of transportation to the suburbs, etc. Certain races were handicapped by the inability to spread out across Los Angeles. Charlotta Bass fought against restrictive covenants and ultimately the racialization of space. Example: Boyle Heights, Olvera Street, Westside vs. Eastside
David Siquieros
Marxist painter who painted “Tropical America” on Olvera Street. The mural was a commentary on unequal race and class relations in Los Angeles and showed a peon being crucified with an eagle sitting over its head. The mural was whitewashed shortly afterwards under the order of Christine Sterling. This suggested a wide array of interpretations, and was seen by some as a forthcom- ing revolution of culture and life.
William Mulholland
William Mulholland was a water engineer of the Met, and also one of the most well known Water Buffalos. He created solutions to the ongoing water crisis by building an aqueduct from the Owens Valley to Los Angeles. In 1910 Los Angeles wanted to bring a large supply of water from Owen’s Valley. In order to gain the rights of the Owen’s River, the city of LA used trickery, deception, secret agents, and Theodore Roosevelt to get the money and power to build the aqueduct. Mulholland relied on self-taught skills and used the motto: “There it is, take it." After Owens valley, he moved on to the Colorado River and by 1930’s LA had support of 6 states to bring water from Color - ado River to LA.
Water Buffaloes
Water Buffaloes were “Power Brokers,” or capitalists with corporate interests in solving water problems in LA. Also, they were members of the Met (unpaid directors). There were 51 members, unknown to the public—not directly elected, but selected for membership by cities. They could impose property taxes, were shielded from public scrutiny, and can be elected for life. The Water Buffaloes gave agency distinct corporate culture. They passionately believed in developing water, harnessing rivers of west, diverting water through dams, aqueducts and canals and bringing it to LA in order to promote the growth machine and bring people to Los Angeles.
Carl Boronkay
Carl Boronkay was the president of the Metropolitan Water District until 1993. He brought new business solutions, and worked to broker deals to appease environmentalists. He was a well-known former attorney and water buffalo. Boronkay was in charge of making deals with environmentalists; for example, he mediated the K-rat issue in return for taking the issue off of the table by engineering a donation of 9,000 acres to save the endangered K-rat. He was then applauded as public servant, and was known as being “environmentally sensitive.” His tactics were simply a version of the old Met tactics—scam, conniving, and trickery. This opposition forced Boronkay to rethink Met’s environmental processes and obscured fact that Met hadn’t really changed. Boronkay never really challenged the basic ideology of the Met.
Metropolitan Water District
The Metropolitan Water District is currently named the Department of Water and Power. “The Met,” formed in 1928, consisted of water engineers, hugely powerful, and notorious for taking land from farmers in order to secure the water interests of residents in LA. It was a truly regional development (unified attempt to bring water into the city), and was dominated by men exclusively. They shared growth coalitions vision of the future. The Met became leading instrument for urban development and growth in LA, even though they claimed they were not interested in promoting growth.
Eastside reservoir
The Eastside Reservoir was a 2-mile wide Metropolitan Water District water project that took place in Riverside by the Domenigoni Valley/Diamond Valley Lake. It was finished in 1992 and filled in 2002. It Supplied nearly 60% of water used by 16 million of the Los Angeles people and was created to appease the constantly increasing water demands. The project cost 1.9 million and was a part of a 10-year program. They stated that San Diego would benefit immediately because they don’t have own water reservoir. Residents of the Diamond Valley do not get any of the water from the reservoir. Created an exchange program to supply water to replenish underground water basin of Col- orado River. It was considered the MET’s greatest success, and was called the “Largest Bathtub in American history” (Fulton 101).
The Peripheral Canal debate
A state water project that wanted to include another large aqueduct bringing water from the Sacramento River south to what was known as the Edmond G. Brown Aqueduct. It was the principle objective for an alliance between the MET and other powerful people in the growth machine. It failed and therefore represented the demise of the MET, and thus the “collapse of the Southern California Growth Machine” (Fulton 111).
Henry Huntington
Henry Huntington was the founder of Pacific Electric Red Car streetcar sys- tem, but made most of his money in real estate. He was the heir of San Francisco railroad fortune. The Pacific Electric Red Car streetcar system was the largest inter-urban rail system in country. It extended more than 1100 miles from Santa Monica to San Bernardino, and was sophisticated and vast. There was a similar narrative with water politics and transportation politics. Huntington was more interested in us- ing street car as real estate device than public transportation. The end of all subway lines was in down- town LA, creating an intolerable climate of congested streets and long commutes. Huntington opened
the Red Car system with very little insight, and city commissioners were not quick to respond to these issues. Fulton says that the middle class rebelled and turned to the automobile as a result of frustration of streetcar system. Status symbol, mark of middle class affluence.
Cars and Freeways in L.A./ Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956
Increased reliance on cars and freeways gave the growth machines a new method for profit, further contributed to cities decentralization, and led to creation of auto-centered shopping complexes such as the Miracle Mile, created by A. W. Ross. The city was building itself around the automobile. Davis maintains that power remained centralized on elite class-porous structure (no strict entrance system). Downtown development and Westside expansion proved to have zero-sum gains and reinforces Fulton’s claim that LA continued to develop into a typical automobile city. More middle class residents weren’t dependent on transportation systems as mode of power, which rendered public transportation useless. However, working class and poorer people were doomed to perils of inconvenient and inefficient public transportation system. The Westside wealth allowed middle class to travel easier, giving them a degree of mobility, and characterizing an ideal middle class Angelo. Los Angeles embraced the car earlier and more quickly than any other city in US except Detroit (130). They prompted city planners and politicians to welcome further decentralization through construction of freeways, thereby accelerating urban decay. Freeways cut up city neighborhoods and made it faster for citizens to flee to suburbs, as well as Increased toxic emis- sions and pollution, disproportionately affecting lower income neighborhoods. The Federal Interstate Highway Act of 1956 was a federal provision for construction of highways and freeways which allocated $333 billion for interstate and highway building. California thus took the lead in massive expansion of freeways, and the working class, once again, gets pushed to the back burner. This led to massive urban and suburban freeway construction in L.A. as California claimed $310 million for developments. However, they were mostly built in poorer neighborhoods, contributing to spatial inequality, destroying many working class neighborhoods, and interconnecting more successful middle-class Angelinos who relied on automobiles. An attempt to build a subway system failed because of opposition by the Westside
L.A. County Transportation Commission versus Rapid Transit Direct
The Rapid Transit Direct wanted to establish a railway system to service the downtown Wilshire corridor. They were initially appointed to develop subway system through downtown LA and Wilshire corridor. Many middle class politicians opposed development to counter growth of government. Many Wealthier residents were opposed to this construction, and Westside people feared it would lead to development of subway in their neighborhoods—NIMBY. This resulted in further Westside seclusion from poorer neighborhoods and linked poorer neighborhoods together because they couldn’t move beyond own narrow communities. The L.A County Transportation Commission was interested in developing a “light rail system” to service the suburbs. They were a rival transportation power structure to the Rapid Transit Direct. This conflict further represents the inability to arrive at a unified vision for transportation in LA. However, the LA County Transportation Commission used dishonest business practices and people found them out. There was a revelation that workers were using plywood to build rail, misaligning tunnels created bus accidents, and a number of bus drivers were exposed for driving with invalid licenses. This led to LA County Transportation Commission buying and absorbing RTD. By 1993, it was renamed Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
Los Angeles River
The Los Angeles River is an example of Urban Nature vs. Nostalgia. It is a Concrete river near downtown, and was created as an effort to revitalize nature in the city. The river started out as a water source for the Gabrielino Indians and was vibrant before industrialization, the only water source for the semi-arid Southern California climate. Because of this, it was subject to the Southern California’s random, hostile weather cycles. For most of the year the river is serene, but it can become a flood control mechanism. It has flooded communities occasionally, allowing politicians
to use it as evidence of danger. They were involved in the natural river, which pushed for the damming of the river in LA. Concreting the river also caused more property damage than it prevented in its construction, therefore making it non-productive/functional. Gottlieb’s view was that the LA River is the “very symbol of LA’s own personal renewal.” The LA River is not a green space or source of water. Many non-profit/local governments have attempted to revitalize the LA River to bring back the river as a viable nature space. Council has created 25-50 year plan to transform the concrete river into a series of recreational areas that would improve the surrounding community’s ability to connect with the waterway. Folar, a non-profit group, wants to line the river with trees, naturalized foliage, fences, and walkways. In a way, it symbolizes a wall between East and West LA, and it reflects the history of water imperialism and use of water/public works to separate communities and hide working class from middle and upper class.
Water Annexation; The Laguna Declaration
Water Annexation consists of water stimulated expansion of the city by extending the boundary lines of Los Angeles. The success of the LA Aqueduct shaped and defined the city, and prompted LA to aggressively market new water supply to existing cities by arguing that growth in these cities would be limited without steady water supply from LA. The growth machine focused on annexing these territories and making them a part of Los Angeles during a period of water stimulated growth and expansion. This process was in favor of extending the city’s boundaries. In 1915, Highland Park was annexed to LA, and in the 1920’s LA wanted to harness water from Colorado River. During the 1930’s, the population declined, so by 1941, they wanted to reroute the Hoover dam but did not have enough residents to consume all of the water. Therefore, the MET was faced with a double dilemma: reduced growth decreased demand, and there was an increase of own water supply imported from Mono Lake basin (connected to Owen’s Valley and Colorado River—but not enough people to consume all the water. In response, the MET established another annexation policy, which allowed the MET to annex more non-urban areas despite founding documents, thus making fewer resources available for inner city areas in terms of water supply. These policies included addition of San Diego Water authority 1946, as well as several agricultural areas including Citrus Valley. By the 1950’s, the MET was a water-brokering agency playing a powerful role in land pattern changes in non-urban areas. However, in 1952, they argued in the Laguna Declaration that in order to meet the water needs of the ever expanding city of LA, the MET would need to be the exclusive entity to secure and manage water needed for the years ahead, therefore authorizing the MET’s role as a monopoly. Under this declaration, they authorized the California Water Project at the Feather River, Columbian River, and Yukon River in Alaska.
Urban/nature interface
The Urban/Nature interface is the point at which urban and non-urban spaces interconnect. It focuses on overcoming the divide between nature and urbanity by conceiving of nature as occurring in multiple places. There are possibilities of creating nature within the city. Gottlieb tries to find ways to create more green spaces in the city and equitable livelihood, or equal access to all services for all residents of the city. Gottlieb has changing a definition of nature, and says that the definitions of nature have changed in relation to place. Americans define nature at scenery and physical landscapes, and these landscapes are away from the city, places that are destinations and escapes from city life. Gottlieb argues against dichotomy of urban space vs. nature space and urges natures integration into industrial centers. The market and industrial era pushed nature out of the city. He advocates an urban nature interface, occurring in multiple places (urban/suburban/rural). Any places where people live work or play are possible nature.
Green spaces
There are four types of green spaces as talked about in the reading—Lawns, Gar- dens, Trees, and Parks. Lawns represent the idea of urban nature in automobile suburbs. They stand as status symbols, but also have environmental consequences. Lawns are central to the character and iden-
tity of suburban home, and are partly a private spaces representing individuals connection to well kept nature. They are also partly a public space that allows for the beautiful aesthetics of the entire com- munity. By the 1950s, super green lawns became a status symbol, causing a class conflict between those who have beautiful lawns and those who do not. The implications of lawns include pesticides, ex- cessive water use, fertilizers, and runoff into water. The compulsivity of lawn care is dystopian in its environmental degradation. The lawn care industry has long way to go to reverse environmental dam- age. Industry has altered practices in response to environmentalist action against pollution/wasteful gardening. Gardens provide ethnic working class with a private food source, and for those communit- ies, nature is utilized to create food. Community gardens (definition page 42) are an effective urban building strategy. Garden provides learning opportunities and fresh vegetables for community. It is an example of transformation of urban space into nature space that services the community. Gottlieb sees gardens as an opportunity for urban residents to experience green space within the city. Trees are powerful landscape symbols of green space in the city because of their strong economic/aesthetic value, their tendency to enhance property values, and their association with ideas that they are sacred in nature. There are fewer planted in urban areas due to the high costs of maintaining trees. Parks offer a place to retreat from the landscape of the city. A lack of parks/green space is common in low-income minority communities. Proposition 13 limited government funding for urban green spaces/parks, even though areas with greatest need for parks are those with high crime, limited backyard space, etc. They do not have resources to purchase green space, further exacerbating the environmental injustice in LA. It is often difficult for residents without cars to find nature (problem related to lack of efficient trans- portation system/ geographic polarization of LA)
Nature motif of the automobile suburbs
New housing developments located at urban edge were developed in proximity to freeway, making it easy to get on freeway and work in urban LA. There was compulsive lawn and garden maintenance in the suburbs, blurring the line between the suburbs and the city. The suburban compulsivity actually creates environmental degradation and pesticide contamination. The desire for nature caused a move to the suburbs, but also destroys nature. (Example- Westlake Village). In 1963, the development of Westlake Village begins, planners said that the development would not destroy natural habitat. (82nd city incorporated into LA). Homes built on cul-de-sac streets, green belts, and around a lake, which was filled through the Westlake connection to the MET water supply. This represents the dilemma of the automobile suburb-search for connection to nature within the community, but at the same time the residents and developers encroach upon the habitat and expand the urban boundary of Los Angeles, leading to problem of creating efficient transportation system due to vastness of LA. This propelled the search for a steady water supply and forced them to connect freeways to the suburban communities, thus lengthening the automobile commute. In contrast to Westlake Village is Bell Gardens, Huntington Park, which is associated with the growth of oil industries--urban communities developing around manufacturing sites (hub cities). Working class suburbs were designed as hubs for families who worked in manufacturing/industrial centers serving blue collar/working class residents. These communities lack schools, libraries, churches, parks, and green spaces because they are built around industry. Industry Impacts the community environmentally through pollution and smog. Gottlieb offers a solution to problem of lacking nature in urban/industrial LA by revitalizing the LA River into a green space of nature and beauty. Because LA is known for absence of nature, it is the perfect location to develop system of environmental justice to give residents adequate access to green space.
The Pobladores
The Pobladores were Indigenous people were occupying LA before Spanish ar- rived. The Spanish governor decided to colonize the land-recruited people from Northern Mexico with promise of land grants. Inhabitants of first non-native American settlement in Los Angeles, El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles in 1781 were located along the Los Angeles River. They were families and
soldiers, and consisted of 44 male heads of households, females, and children. Historical documents show that there were only 2 Spaniards, and the other 42 were some degree of African or Indian ances- try. This showed how LA went from a racially diverse model to one of Anglo dominance. The displace- ment of indigenous peoples led to the idea of forced labor.
Pio Pico
Pio Pico was of African descent. He was the last Mexican governor of California, and built first major luxury hotel in LA called “Casa Pico” in 1870. He was one of few ranchers able to hold onto his land during the repatriation. He served twice as governor and began process of secularizing mission properties. He didn’t want California to become an American territory, and when the Mexican-American war happened, Pico fled to MX to beg troops to come to fight against CA becoming a territory. Returned after the signing of Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo, and moved to a model of exclusion. Los Angeles went from asmall colonial outpost made of citizens of racial variety to one that is racially and spatially segregated. This captures or conceals the tensions of the people of LA.
Charlotta Bass
Charlotta Bass was the editor and publisher of the California Eagle (1913). She spoke out against restrictive covenants and other forms of racial discrimination. She was the first African American woman to run for vice president (1952) under the Progressive party. Her motives are opposite to the boosters (LA Times). She wished to use the paper to break down walls of segregation. She was big on social advocacy and social justice.
Restrictive Covenants; Residential Segregation
Clauses in leases restricting certain races and ethnicities from occupying property in predominantly white neighborhoods. There was a fear that certain minorities would decrease property value. It segregated neighborhoods by race. Home ownership was viewed as very attainable in L.A (linked strongly to attainability of the American dream). African Americans were able to live amongst so many other ethnicities paradise for African Americans. Metaphorical white walls were built up in regards to real estate. Reading (LA Race Woman p. 616).
The Laws Case:
o Black family purchased a home in Watts, a restricted area (1936), decided to occupy it, and was jailed.
o Fought for 7 years to reside in their home free of harassment
o The California Eagle provided extensive coverage of their case
Race and Leisure Space; Bruce's Beach
Black family purchased beachfront property in Manhattan Beach (1911). It was turned into a resort called “Bruce’s Beach”. The Klu Klux Klan vandalized the property, Manhattan beach officials shut down Bruces’ Beach in the 1920s. The Bruces were not allowed to purchase beachfront property.
Eddie Goldstein
Jewish man who lived in Boyle Heights, married a Mexican-American woman. Promoted diversity and adapted changes in Boyle Heights. He was “One of a kind in Boyle Heights.”
Boyle Heights/ Cross Racial Connections
Boyle Heights is located on the eastern edge of L.A. Once a multicultural neighborhood with a strong Jewish influence, essentially a “melting pot” of ethnicity, but now segregated and predominantly Mexican-American neighborhood. Sanchez proves that a multicultural attitude still prevails in Boyle Heights. Exodus of Jewish Americans from Boyle Heights. Ironically, they were considered a diverse community while all the Jewish community was migrating out, and essentially the neighborhood was becoming more overall Mexican-American. Misleading “seat of democratic progress”. This still touches the topic of spatial racism
Soto-Michigan Jewish Community Center; Mel Janapol; Mark Keats
Mel Janapol: board
member of Soto-Michigan Jewish Center in charge of “intercultural activities.” Began inviting non- Jewish youth to a model Seder at the Jewish center. Mark Keats: youth director, organized “Festival of Friendship” Jewish American  from the image of a minority to Caucasian (at the end of WWII)
Festival of Friendship
First held in 1949, by Mark Keats of Boyle Heights Jewish center to bring together Mexican, Japanese, Black, and Jewish youth. Jewish Americans folded into category of Caucasian instead of their own minority group, opened up real estate opportunities and ultimately was a catalyst for the mass Jewish exodus. Emphasis on activism at the Jewish Community Center
Soto-Michigan Jewish Community Center
- tried to assimilate new immigrants (Mexicans, Japanese) into Jewish culture and vise versa
- multicultural experiment
- closed down due accusations of fostering communist activity
- didn’t receive much support from Jewish community
- Jews were very scared of being labeled communist supporters
- truthfully, they weren’t really fostering any communist activity
Breed Street Synagogue
Aka Congregation Talmud Torah. Began in downtown LA in 1904, moved to Boyle Heights in 1913. By 1923 it was not only a synagogue but also a school. 1988- the building was designated as a City of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument. As the Jewish community in Boyle Heights began to disperse, the building itself and the Breed Street community started to deteriorate. Services eventually stopped in 1996, city of LA foreclosed on the property. 1998- Hillary Clinton (first lady at the time) visited the synagogue as part of the “Save America’s Treasures”; she claimed that migration of cultural groups, such as occurred in Boyle Heights, are natural (Sanchez would disagree/claim that the Boyle Heights migration was the result of deliberate processes). There are now plans to rehabilitate the building and turn it into a museum and educational and cultural center
Jackie Ishida
Protagonist of novel; granddaughter of Frank Sakai (UCLA law student). Represents modern LA women trying to cope with foreign background in a diverse, but racially stratified world
James Lanier
Works at Marcus Garvey Community Center; from Crenshaw neighborhood; cousin of Curtis Martindale; tells Jackie the story of Curtis’ murder in Frank’s store; wants to make a case against Nick Lawson;
Frank Sakai
The grandfather of Jackie. He is dead and used to own a store in which four boys were found murdered in the walk-in freezer. He is also Curtis’s father, he had an affair with Curtis’s mother. This was a very unacceptable act at the time.
Curtis Martindale
The son of Frank Sakai. He was one of the four boys found in Frank's freezer. He is also the cousin of James Lanier.
Nick Lawson
A white police officer that everyone thought murdered Curtis Martindale because of his history as a racist and violent man who beat up black kids.
Captain Thomas
A middle-aged black officer who didn’t have a choice but to work at black neighborhoods. During his first few years on the job (around the sixties), no white men could be arrested by black men – or even work with one. Black cops had to work ten times harder than white cops to get any kind of respect.
Alma Martindale
“she is from a long line of women that have refused to accept the status of their color”. her grandmother was a slave. she became a teacher. her main goal: help children in her community. Mother of curtis. Frank’s lover. Important because Frank is Japanese and she’s black. She prevents racial stereotypes from restricting her. Attempts to resist geographical binds, determined to preserve dignity and independence, refuses to be defined by color and gender. The community thought she was insane. She helped others to protest against bad education. Alma thought she could erase stigma on black women by working hard and tries to instill hard work in her children. Alma faces limitations by sacrificing her happiness to improve her children’s future
Victor Conway
Frank’s best friend who looked after frank’s home and shop while they were at the internment camp. He is described as a handsome charismatic ladies-man. His relationship with Janie falls apart and is eventually reduced to him sending her sums of money to take care of children. He loses his job and finds a new tough grueling one at a steel mill. He begins drinking and his lively personality starts to fade
Kenji
just turned 36 and is an only child. Kenji is married to Yuki and is deeply religious. He joined the army and likes to bowl to calm himself. I think - his wife and newborn baby were killed during the child’s birth. The doctor at hand was drunk and performed shamefully.
Laura
She was Jackie Ishida’s girlfriend and lover for three years. Doesn’t live with Jackie who hasn’t told her parents that she is gay, which puts strain on their relationship. At first didn’t tell her co- workers her sexual orientation but finally did, which ended strengthening her relationships with her co- workers
Executive Order 9066
Issued February 19, 1942 by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Authorized the evacuation of all persons deemed a threat (Japanese and Japanese Americans) to national security from the West Coast to relocation centers (concentration/internment camps). Told people that they 48 hours to get ready to move. Could only take the possessions that they could carry. They were not told when they would be allowed to return home
Japanese Internment Camps
Concentration camps-President Roosevelt’s Executive Order 9066-even after the war people didn’t talk about them because they weren’t as bad as the Nazi concentration camps. At first anyone with 1/8 Asian blood were evacuate, and later anyone with 1/16 Asian blood was evacuated to internment camps. They were originally called temporary relocation centers, but ended becoming known as internment/concentration camps. People in them weren’t officially called prisoners, they were called evacuees. Many camps where inland and in the middle of nowhere like Manzanar. Very windy and dusty because they were isolated in desert areas; sand pebbles hit people. Propaganda said Japanese Americans would “reclaim the desert.” Snowed in the middle of September many from Southern California; Cold winters and people had to take showers then walk to barracks. Upon arrival, evacuees were issued a long sack and told to fill it with hay served as mattress. Not enough nutrients and food for children and adults because guards would steal some for themselves. Not a very healthy child lack of food and milk. The camps had fences around them FENCING evacuees in. Camp was in block arrangements contained 14 barracks, 1 mess hall, and 1 recreational hall on the outside. Other places in the camp included: dry and cold warehouses, a car and equipment repair and storage, an administration, schools, canteens, a library, religious services, hospitals, and a post office. Room size 16x20 ft (7 of us). Families Disintegrated via internment. Children didn’t eat with parents; ate with peers and didn’t even have to live with parents. It was possible to cut yourself off from your family
Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
formed in 1929 to protect the rights of Japanese Americans from the state and federal governments. It fought for civil rights for Japanese Americans, assisted those in internment camps during World War II, and led a successful campaign for redress for internment from the U.S. Congress. Considered traitors and informers, and they were meant to be a political figure in the public eye. They tried to get everyone to embrace the camp rules.
Nisei
term used to specify the children born to Japanese people in the new country. The Nisei are considered the second generation.
Kibei
term often used in the 1940s to describe Japanese Americans born in the United States who returned to America after receiving their education in Japan.
Issei
term used to specify the Japanese people first to immigrate
Loyalty Questionnaire
In January 1943, federal officials announced that Japanese Americans, including those held in incarceration camps, would be allowed to volunteer for a racially segregated U.S. Army unit. In February 1943, the U.S. War Department and the War Relocation Authority (WRA) decided to test the loyalty of all people of Japanese ancestry who were incarcerated in the WRA camps. They required all those 17 years of age and older to answer a questionnaire that became known as the "loyalty questionnaire." Their answers would be used to decide whether they were loyal or disloyal to the United States. The form gave clearance of loyalty in order to leave the camp. It was first only offered in English and responses were grade on a plus or minus system. Question 27 asked if they were willing to join a segregated army. Question 28 asked if they were willing to give up allegiance to the Japanese emperor.
Manzanar
most widely known as the site of one of ten camps where over 120,000 Japanese Americans were imprisoned during World War II. One of ten concentration camps and these camps became a liability in the eyes of the government.
442nd Infantry Regiment
of the United States Army was an all-Japanese American unit. They fought primarily in Europe during World War II, beginning in 1944. The families of many of its soldiers were subject to internment. They were Nisei who fought to prove their loyalty.
Chicano Moratorium 1970
formally known as the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, was a movement of Chicano anti-war activists that built a broad-based but fragile coalition of Mexican- American groups to organize opposition to the Vietnam War. Led by activists from local colleges and members of the "Brown Berets," a group with roots in the high school student movement that staged walkouts in 1968, the coalition peaked with an August 29, 1970 march in East Los Angeles that drew 30,000 demonstrators.
Chicano School Walkouts 1968
a series of 1968 protests against unequal conditions in Los Angeles Unified School District high schools. While the students who organized and carried out the protests were primarily concerned with the quality of their education, they were also motivated by the high minority death toll in the Vietnam War and the ongoing civil rights campaigns of the Chicano Movement.
La Raza Unida Party
sought better housing, job, and educational opportunities for Mexican- Americans. Called upon government to issue a blanket amnesty to those aliens already in the United States. It also demanded that the law be amended so that all aliens would be eligible for American
citizenship after three years with no language requirements.
League of United Latin Citizens (LULAC)
aim of combating the discrimination that all Hispanics may face in the United States. Politically moderate organizations that emphasized assimilation; critics of Bracero Program; advocated laws against undocumented immigration. committed to combating economic, cultural and political discrimination against Mexican Americans in Southern California. Recognized that cultural presence of native born MX immigrants could be obstacle to own desire to assimilate. Ambivalent posture towards illegal Mexican Immigration. Traditionally moderate MX AM organizations-not supportive of MX illegal activism. Became far more radical
Mexican American Political Association (MAPA)
an organization that promotes the interests of Mexican-Americans, Mexicans, Latinos, Chicanos, Hispanics and Latino Economic Refugees in the United States. It is a grass root based coalition with an organizational structure that functions as a collective of communal circles working together, at different levels, towards political empowerment, self determination and sustainability of the Latino community’s future.
Ruben Salazar
was a Mexican-American journalist killed by a Los Angeles County Sheriff's deputy during the National Chicano Moratorium March against the Vietnam War on August 29, 1970 in East Los Angeles, California. His killing was often cited as a symbol of unjust treatment of Chicanos by law enforcement. Salazar was the first Mexican-American journalist to cover the Chicano community from the mainstream media.