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157 Cards in this Set

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1st Interpretation of the American Revolution involved

1
a social and an economic class struggle. Authors were influenced by Karl Marx and saw the rev as battle between haves and have-nots. Seen as a social movement to create equality.

1930s
Proponents of 1st Interpretation point to

2
the fact that 1/3 of Americans wanted freedom, 1/3 supported the crown, and another 1/3 were indifferent.

Frontiersman, descendants of wild bachelors, resented Merchants on Eastern seacoast. In Boston and NY, there were artisans tied to locals for money. Merchants selling Artisans material, though, were tied to England.
Another split came out the

3
the 1st Great Awakening in which poorer Evangelical New Lights opposed the wealthier Old Lights. Lots or rivalries like the rivalry between the Putnams and Porters complicate things even further.
2nd Interpretation of the American Revolution

4
Occurred in the 1960s when scholars said that the AR did not come about due to class conflict but due to intellectual revolt. It was designed to preserve the rights of every Englishmen that had been lost or negated through the tyranny of the British Crown.
In 1763, a proclamaiton declared that

5
it was forbidden for colonists to go beyond the Appalachian Moutains. In 1764, the Sugar Act was passed to pay for the French and Indian War. In 1765, the Stamp Act was passed on all pieces of paper. Later there were taxes on Tea, paint, and other imported things. 1763
In 1773, after the Tea Act passed, colonists in

6
Boston staged the Boston Tea Party. British shut down Boston Harbor, harbor troops in Boston, and the leader of the Red Coats becomes the Governor. 1773
Quebec Act passed in

7
1774, that allowed Catholics in Canada to keep their government--seen by Colonists as an attempt by Red Coats to gain Catholic support in political divide of the time.
The Age of Reason was

8
an age in the 1770s that basically said if nature is run by laws, human nature should also be run by laws. This involved finding the laws that led to the prosperity or decline of earlier nations and adapt these laws to American society.
The Declaration of Independence was created in 1776 due to

9
The Declaration of Independence was created in 1776 due to the Continentals being on the brink of defeat and in dire need of French support to defeat the British.

The Declaration of Independence was also a result of the colonists unsuccessful attempts to petition King George for change. (10 years of petitions.)
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was a

10
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was a revolution in England that involved the Noblemen deposing the last of the Steward Kings.

SIG: Americans look to the Glorious Revolution as an example of a people's righ to rebel against a tyrannical king.
In the 1770s, the Whig Party

11
In the 1770s, the Whig party came out of the Glorious Revolution and supported the American Colonists.
In the 1770s, the Tories

12
In the 1770s, the Tories were a Political party that supported the English government in its fight with the colonists.
In the 1780s, the US Constitution

13
In the 1780s, the US Constitution was developed as a written document that shows how American society is to be constituted.
The Three Estates are

14
The Crown, Nobility, and the Commoners. The Crown was the king, the Nobility was representative of the aristocracy, and the Commoners were representatives of the common man.
If the Crown is too powerful

15
it becomes a dictatorship.

If the Nobility is too powerful, it becomes an oligarchy.

If the Commoners are too powerful, anarchy reigns.
American Colonists saw

16
Parliament as the corrupt tool of the King and believed that the Kingship had devolved into a dictatorship.
English people are too weak to rebel against the Government. Americans must do this.
Virtue

17
After the American Revolution, it becomes clear that people aren't as virtuous as they seem and it becomes increasingly difficult to preserve the balance necessary to preserve the constitution.
The Pennsylvania Government
before US Constitution

18
lacked both a Senate and a Governor. Pennsylvania decides to use an assembly that will be elected every year. This assembly would then elect the Supreme Executive Council, a council consisting of 12 individuals who were to act as one on all decisions.
The Pennsyslvania Government

19
failed and caused rioting in the streets. The old government was thrown out and replaced with an assembly, a senate, and a Governor.

Gradually, as the Pennsylvania Constitution was rewritten, there was a separation of powers and the creation of Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branches.
Pennsylvania needed a system of

20
checks and balances to make sure things worked out well and weren't done hastily.
The argument for the Senate was that

21
there were citizens who were wealthy and educated and knew more things than the average person. Since there was no aristocracy to reward these people, the Senate was created to honor these people.
The significance of the 13 former colonies is that

22
there would not have been such a wide range of governmental experience when it came to creating the constitution in 1787. Citizens realize that perhaps it is impossible to see eye to eye on everything.
The first approach to understanding human nature involves

23
The first approach to understanding human nature involves viewing human nature as corrupt and in need of governmental restraint. The government should cause humans to act as good, virtuous republicans
The second approach to understanding human nature involves viewing

24
The second approach to viewing human nature involves viewing human nature as malleable. If the environment is arranged in a way that is positive and uplifting, then humans will be good and virtuous.
Thomas Jefferson had a

25
blank slate view of humans, and wanted the 13 colonies to be united under federalism. Jefferson wanted power to be locally based because he believed that the colonies were too diverse to form the homogenous unity that a republic required.
Yeomen farmers were the people who

26
Thomas Jefferson said held the virtue of America. Yeomen farmers worked independently with their families and owned a few slaves on a small plot of land.
Jefferson believed that

27
Jefferson believed that every man should be economically independent and that the Yeomen farmers were prime examples of this. Yeomen farmers were the chosen people of God and have been deemed virtuous by God.
Jefferson opposed labor in

28
workshops, believing this type of labor made people dependent and subserviant--thus promoting a decline in virtue.
Federalist were a party that

29
under James Madison, argued that a Republic should be as large as possible so no one interest could take over and tyrannicall rule over others. There will always be competing interests--play them off one another.
Alexander Hamilton said that society was

30
a machine that could be manipulated for the common good. Hamilton argued that only by the use of factories could the US become totally free. He argued that the government should subsidize factories so that the US is not dependent on Europe for supplies.

Put women, kids, and old folks in the factories.
Strict Construction of Constitution

31
Thomas Jefferson warned against big government and argued for a strict interpretation of the constitution and said that the Federal Government can't do anything unless the constitution says it can do it.
Loose Construction of the Constitution

32
Alexander Hamilton wanted the government to buy land, subsidize factories, and interpret the constitution in a way that allowed the federal government to do anything not exclusively forbidden by the constitution.
The signinificance of Hamilton's view of the constitution

33
is that it was inherited by the North. Jefferson's view was inherited by the south. These conflicting views eventually contribute to the Civil War.
Jefferson was a deist who

34
believed that God's revelation came from nature. He was pleased with the virtuous nature of Americans and believed that the US could maintain and extend virtue.

SIG: In 1803, Jefferson okays the Louisianna Purchase to make space for all the generations to come. Believed there was enough land to last 1000 years.
Charles Wilson Peal

35
popularized the Jeffersonian view of nature and opened the first Natural History museum in the US. Charles Wilson Peal was a self made man, knew many trades, and always looked for ways to improve himself. 1820s
The Age of Andrew Jackson was known as

36
the Age of the Common Man. American people had more influence in the Age of the Common Man than at any other time. 1829
James Kemp in 1820s, said that

37
the US stands on the edge of fate. The US is no longer just a farming nation. The US is becoming a great nation of enormous wealth.
Future Shock

38
is a term for the response people had to increasing rate of change, upheaval, and progress that the US as a whole experienced during the 1960s. Similar to 1830s.
There is incredible promise in the 1830s, but

39
there is a fear that America is changing too quickly and will lose the ideals of the founding fathers.
Urbanization involved

40
populations on the East Coast doubling every 15 years.
In 1793, the

41
Cotton Gin was created and made possible the slave economy of the south.

In the 1800s, Eli Whitney made possible systems of mass production.
In the 1820s, the

42
Steam Engine was applied to navigation. In the 1830s, the steam engine was applied to rail roads.
In the 1830s, the telegraph made it possible to

43
telegraph made it possible for people to communicate with each other instantaneoulsy at long distances.
In 1836, Horatio Greeno

44
spent 16 years in Italy, came back to America and said speed was the key to American character.
People believed that material progress brought

45
about spritual and moral improvement. People begin to think that humanity can be improved and put faith into the concept of progress.
Alexis De Tocqueville, in

46
"Democracy in America," said Americans always want more technology than they can get.
1830s
Henry Clay coined the term

47
"self-made men." There was a real faith in the 1830s that a man could pull himself up by his own bootstraps.
Horation Alger was a writer

48
Horatio Alger was a writer of fiction in the 1860s and the 1870s that created books dealing with some poor, deserving young man that, with a combination of luck and pluck, managed to make something of himself. Boy who rescues daughter of multimillionaire.
Industrialization and Urbanization increased

49
Industrialization and Urbanization increased social mobility, and in the 1830s and the 1840s, the US started to become a society of consumerism. Speed of transportation increases.
Lots of people felt

50
Lots of people felt threatened by the changes of the tims and there existed an undercurrent of loss, separation and fear.
This undercurrent of loss, separation, and fear led to

51
This undercurrent of loss, separation and fear led to bitter attacks on Catholics, Monarchists, Masons, Mormons and others who, in the 1820s, were accused of conspiring to destroy the US.
In the 1830s, there was an outpouring of

52
In 1830s, there was an outpouring of anticatholic sentiment after literature was distributed that claimed a nun was being raped by priests and that her dead illigitamate children were being buried in the Parish walls. In 1834, an Angry mob in Massachussetts burned down a Catholic Parish.
In the 1830s, James Fenimore Cooper said

53
In the 1830s, James Fenimore Cooper said that America is like a game of musical chairs that leaves a lot of people out in the cold when they had no chair to sit in.
In 1828, Cooper's "Notions of the Americans,"

54
In 1828, Cooper's "Notions of the Americans," Cooper portrayed the US as a nation of simple, comfortable agrarian yeomen. The US was situated between the extremes of civilization and farm life.
In 1838, Cooper's "Home as Found,"

55
In 1838, Cooper's "Home as Found," Cooper creates a character named Aristabulas Bragg who is a money-grubbing individualist that sells his heart and principles to anything that could produce an economic advantage. Bragg is a morally unsound creature of circumstance.
In "Home as Found," Cooper says that

56
In "Home as Found," Cooper says that the typical American has fallen away from higher truths and spiritual things. Cooper wants Americans to look back at the founding fathers for inspiration and become self-sacrificing heroic patriots.
The Historian Bankcroft is significant due to

57
The Historian Bankcroft is signifcant due to creating a 10 volume series that showed there was no declension resulting from an improvement in technology. Bankcroft said that improvement in technolgy was proof of God's favor.
In the 1820s, there was a sense that

58
In the 1820s, there was a sense that the institutions of the family, church, government and elites were weakening as families moved west and new technologies were developed. There was a fear that these changes would lead to social and political anarchy.
The Second Great Awakening started in

59
The Second Great Awakening started in the 1820s in Kentucky and spread throughout the country to New York.
The 1st focus of the Second Great Awakening involved

60
The 1st Focus of the Second Great Awakening involved a focus on the individual having the power to save themselves. This focus took the power to save people away from the clergy and discredited predestination.
Charles Grandison Finney's "Sinners Bound to Change Their Own Hearts,"

61
Charles Grandison Finney's "Sinners Bound to Change Their own Hearts," discredited predistation and said that people have the power to save themselves. There is Jacksonian Individualism in this.
The 2nd Focus of the Second Great Awakeining came

62
The 2nd Focus of the Second Great Awakening came from a fear of established ministers that people had taken too much power for themselves in the faith. These ministers tried to enlist these new converts into ministries designed to reign in some form of social control.

Example: the tract society sends tracts of Christianity all over the country.
In 1847, Horace Bushnell's
"Christian Nature," says it
63
In 1847, Horace Bushnell's
"Christian Nature," says it is wrong for people to speak in tongues and that Christians are made not through revivals and meetings but through the family and the mother. The home is to control the individual and shape their spiritual uprbringing. The family is the last way to control explosive individualist impulses.
Bushnell's books focus on

64
Bushnell's books focus on the civilizaing influence of the wife and mother in the home. Women have to corral the explosive energy of men in the outer society.
In the South, society

65
In the South, society has not changed at all and is still a simple, agrarian society. Plantation novels are popular.
Some felt that material progress brought about

66
Some felt that material progress brought about moral improvement while others felt it would bring doom and gloom.
In 1843, William Miller said he

67
In 1843, William Miller said he had a vision in which God gave him stone tablets saying the world would be destroyed on a particular day in 1843. The day came, his followers went onto a hill to wait, and nothing happens. These people were known as Millerites--now the 7th Day Advents.
In 1847, the Thomas Cole paintings "The Course of Empire," were a series

68
In 1847, the Thomas Cole paintings "The Course of Empire," were a series of paintings showing the rise of a civilization and the destruction of an empire.

SAVAGERY--CIVILIZATION--MORAL DEPRAVITY--DESTRUCTION--SAVAGERY

This series was meant as a cautionary tale for the US.
William Prescott wrote the

69
William Prescott wrote the "Covenant of Mexico and Peru" and chronicled how the Incas became so immoral that they were unable to defend themselves.
William Gilmore Sims wrote about

70
the demise and destruction of Atlantis.
Rufus Dawes envisioned a

71
Rufus Dawes envisioned a comet coming to Earth, having the Earth's crust shatter, and having all birds and beasts rushed to ruin because of it.
Americans felt that Andrew Jackson was the

72
Americans felt that Andrew Jackson was the antidote to moral problems and saw Nature, Will, and Divine Providence in his character.
People saw Nature in Jackson due to

73
People saw Nature in Jackson due to his involvement in the Battle of New Orleans in which he led a group of 1000 American soldiers against the British and defeated them despite their superior numbers. Incredible due to frontiersman with flintlock rifles fighting off a highly trained modern army of superior numbers. Jackson relies on his own intution/nature to defeat the enemy.
People saw Will in Jackson due to

74
People saw Will in Jackson due to being challenged to a duel, being shot in the chest, and, before falling to the ground, being able to shoot his adversary in the head. This gives him an "Iron Will" interpretation.
People saw Divine Providence in Jackson due

75
to a would-be assasin putting a gun to Jackson's head, pulling the trigger three times, and having the pistol misfire each time. After the attacker was tackled and the gun removed, it fired perfectly. This incident was seen as evidence of God's protection over Jackson
In the 1800s, there was no guarantee that the

76
In the 1800s, there was no guarantee that the US would last forever. In the 1830s, this fear had dissipated with the advances in transportation, canals, technologies and textile mills run by water power and (later) steam power. New Sates are formed, and life is sped up.
The First Great Awakening was radical in

77
The First Great Awakening was radical in a political sense due to to giving individuals the strength to rebel against ministerial authority.
The Second Great Awakening was radical

78
The Second Great Awakening was radical theologically due it freeing thousands of people from the Calvinist sense of innate depravity. The Second Great Awakening gave people the power to save themselves.
Socially Conservative Ministers furthered the 2nd Great Awakening because

79
Socially Conservative Ministers furthered the 2nd Great Awakening because they saw it as a way to bring people back into the church and rededicate them to social goals.
In 1800, the Key development in religion was the

80
In 1800, the Key development in religion was the disestablishment of state churches. Every colony had an established Church, except Pennsylvania, and every citizen had to pay taxes to support these state churches.
In the Revolutionary War, states stopped

81
In the Revolutionary War, states stopped collecting Taxes for state churches and causes Protestant churches to compete with one another for parishoners and resources.
Congregationists were strict

82
Congregationists were strict Calvinists who believed in a tiny elect. They believed in the Visible Church and were located in Massachusetts.
Presbyterians had a very

83
Presbyterians had a very hierarchical belief system and were very Calvinist like the Congregationists. Presbyterians made up members of the 1st Great Awakening would refer to as "Old Lights."
Unitarians were descendants of

84
Unitarians were descendants of the Arminian Brattle Street Church in Boston. By 1805, the Unitarians were a full fledged denomination and took over Harvard College. Unitarians were very popular in Massachusetts.

Unitarians were mostly upper class and espoused a more rational view of Religion than Puritans.
Unitarians looked at the Doctrine of Trinity and

85
Unitarians looked at the Doctrine of Trinity and decided it was irrational. They considered the Bible an ethical example but not the word of God.

Unitarians also disagree with Infant Damnation--a belief that a baby who dies before baptism goes to hell.
Universalists were similar to

86
Universalists were similar to Unitarians by believing that salvation was open to everyone and that God sends no one to Hell. However, they differed by believing the Earth was surrounded by 7 spheres and that dying on Earth. Dying on Earth meant a you could move to the next sphere. At the 7th Sphere, you are ready to commune with God.

Universalists were working class, democratic, and individualists. The universe was an elementary school to them.
Episcopalians were formerly known as

87
Episcopalians were formerly known as Anglicans and had strict Calvinist tendencies but also tended to be very rational. Episcopalians were close to Unitarians in their belief systems and were "hands off" towards religious matters.

Episcopalians were mostly members of the wealthy upper middle class.
Lutherans were like

88
Lutherans were like the Anglicans, who believed that just living one's life would be sufficient. God would take care of the rest.
Methodists started the

89
Methodists started the 2nd Great Awakening. Methodists believe in free will and that the spirit of God is what saves you. They held Camp Meetings in Kentucky in the 1820s and 1830s.
Camp Meetings had peole

90
Camp meetings had people praising the Lord, singing hymns, listening to sermons, and participating in other Christian activities.
Circuit Riders was the term

91
Circuit Riders was the term given to Methodist preachers who would preach to 6-12 congregations on the frontier.
Baptists were descendants of

92
Baptists were descendants of the New Lights. Their main point was that people should be baptised as adults when they really knew the meaning of baptism. Some Baptists were free will while others were strictly Calvinist.
The Society of Friends made up

93
The Society of Friends was made up of powerful people in Pennsylvania. Quakers no longer tried to convert people anymore. Support Pacificsm and abolitionism.
Roman Catholics were established in

94
Roman Catholics were established in Maryland and were feared by Protestants who thought they were trying to destroy the US. This fear is one of the things that leads to the 2nd Great Awakening.
Jews came mainly from

95
Jews came mainly from Spain between the 1850s and 1890s.
Deists and Free-thinkers like

96
Deists and Free-thinkers like Benjamin Franklin or Charles Wilson Peal were almost completely wiped out by Protestants during the French Revolution. Protestants say Deists are subversive.
Menonites and other sects came from

96
Menonites and other sects came from Germany and become the Amish of Ohio and Pennsylvania.
All of these religous groups create

97
All of these religious groups create a very pluralistic situation that may have contributed to the anxieties of the times.
The Three Questions members of a religious community

98
The Three Questions members of a religious community had to ask themselves were

1. Free Will vs. Calvinism.

2. Do you believe inllowing people to be caught up in emotino? Or, do you believe that someone should go through a long drawn out process like the Puritan to become a member?

3. Indiviualism vs. Social Cohesion involved whether to keep your faith private or whether you should try and make society Christian.
The Benevolent Empire consists of

99
The Benevolent Empire consists of Prebyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and Episcopalians who worked together to further the goals of the US as a Christian Nation. They wanted to build a Christian America.
While the first Great Awakening meant to

100
While the first Great Awakening meant to shake people, put religion back in their lives, and build a conservative Christian society, the Second Great Awakening was meant to deal with the problems of Calvinism. Ministers re-examined Calvinism amidst a decline in Church attendance.
Timothy Dwight was a Presbyterian and the

101
Timothy Dwight was a Presbyterian and the President of Yale College. He saw that very few of his students were Calvinist while most were deist. Dwight considered Deism a heresy and attacks it during the French Revolution.
While Dwight was a Calvinist,

102
While Dwight was a Calvinist and believed in a tiny elect, he wanted to change things and knew that students wanted change as well.
Lyman Beecher, a student of Dwight, instituted a

103
Lyman Beecher, a student of Dwight from 1826 to 1832, instituted a system of Permanent Revivals with rotating speakers due to a realization that the same speakers, over time, will bore people. He decides to bring in guest speakers to churches all over the US to keep up excitement in the churches. This stirs people up and brings more people to church.
Beecher thought of himself as

104
Beecher thought of himself as a Calvinist, yet believes that faith should in some ways be accountable to public opinion by telling people what they want to hear.
Nathaniel Taylor denied innate depravity and said

105
Nathaniel Taylor denied innate depravity and said that Adam's Original Sin did not cause us to become sinners. Taylor says we are pre-disposed to sin, but not guilty until we sin. He said that proper choices can be made by individuals to avoid sin.

He believed that God gave us the choice to be saved or unsaved.
Charles Grandison Finney is the George Whitefield of the

106
Charles Grandison Finney is the George Whitefield of the 2nd Great Awakening. Finney said God gave people the power and will to save themselves when they wanted to. He was a very emotional speaker that encouraged all-night prayer meetings, praying for sinners in public by name, allowing women to pray, and the denouncing of minister whom he considered spiritually dead.
Finney Creates the "Science of Revivals," in which he

107
Finney creates the "Science of Revivals," in which he studies human psychology to improve his ministerial technique. His most famous sermon was called "Sinners Bound to Change Their Own Hearts," in which he espoused free will.
"Perfectionism," was a belief encouraged by

108
"Perfectionism," was a belief encouraged by Finney that said once you are saved, the Holy Spirit makes you perfect, and you should then try to make everything around you perfect to create the perfect society.
The Second Great Awakening was an attempt to create a

109
The Second Great Awakening was an attempt to create a visionary, utopian society that would perfect the US. The 2nd Great Awakening leads to the creation of Abolitionist societies that contribute to the Civil War. Forerunner to Evangelical Christianity.
"Pantheism" is the belief held by

110
"Pantheism," is the belief held by Emerson that says God is the cosmos, no longer an individual, and that the entire cosmos is divine and holy.
Emerson believed that humanity is

111
Emerson believed that humanity is part of the cosmos and is part of one giant cosmos of God. "We are all part and particle with God."
In 1854, Henry David Throeau wrote

112
In 1854, Henry David Thoreau wrote "Walden," the story of his stay in a log cabin next to Walden Pond. Thoreau wanted to live like a Transcendentalist, while Emerson just wanted to write about Transcendentalistism
Transcendentalism involves

113
Transcendentalism involves being conscious of a merger with God. Transcendentalists want to feel this merger with God.
In 1836, Emerson talks a lot about nature and

114
In 1836, Emerson talks a lot about nature and our embededness in nature. He describes himself as a "transparent eyeball," to show his oneness with nature and the value of aesthetic reality.

This passage in "Nature" is similar to a Puritan conversion experience--"I have enjoyed a perfect exhiliration in the woods."
"Volk" is German for

115
is German for folk, and is one of the qualities of Romanticism.
Coleridge is a poet, who, in 1825, popularized the works of

116
Coleridge is a poet who, in 1825, popularized the works of Kant. Coleridge juxtaposes two different ideas in his book.

1. Understanding
2. Reason
According to Coleridge, Understanding is the

117
According to Coleridge, understanding is the rational mode of comprehending something while Reason is the intuitive, imaginitive side that is higher than logic and regular understanding.
Emerson's beliefs are a perversion of the

118
Emerson's beliefs are a perversion of the Puritan Theology of Grace. In Puritanism, grace meant the removal of sins by God. According to Emerson's beliefs, Grace means the aesthetic appeal of nature and art.
Emerson believed that a work of art was

119
Emerson believed that a work of Art was an expression nature in minature. He said that nothing was beautiful alone, things are only beautiful "in relation to the entire cosmos."
Emerson believed that "there was no object so foul

120
Emerson believed that "there is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful." Yet, where does evil, dog turds, severed heads fit into this belief system?
Emerson said that there was no such thing as

121
Emerson said that there was no such thing as evil. He read Hindu scriptures in which everything was Karmic and had a particular balance.

Emerson also read Plato, who said things are a reflection of higher truths.
"Nature" is a cultural

122
"Nature" is a cultural declaration of independence in which Emerson says we don't have to "view nature through the eyes of our ancestors." We can find our own inspiration here and now. We can "have a poetry and philosophy of insight, not tradition, and a religion of revelation to us, not of their revelation." "The sun shines today also."
"Nature" was meant to

123
"Nature" was meant to open our eyes to the currents of the cosmos flowing through us so that we may become as Gods ourselves.
Walt Whitman followed Emerson
and
124
Walt Whitman followed Emerson and sees himself in everything and everyone. In "Leaves of Grass," Whitman views himself in grass that dies and is fertilized by bodies.
Emerson radically enforces individualism by

125
Emerson radically enforces individualism by allowing people to embrace understanding and reason (intuition). Emerson also empowers people by giving them the impression that they can do no wrong. Everything they do is "part and parcel of divinity."

Emerson is the first New Ager.
Romanticism is the movement away from

127
Romanticism is the movement away from logic/reason and towards the emotion of the heart. Romanticism is not necessaryily logical, and emphasizes the power of the individual as an autonomous figure.
Americans thought of the west as a

128
Americans thought of the west as a larger than life exotic place for new experiences.

The first Americans of the West envisioned it as a picturesque and romantic wilderness abounding in the poetic and the boundless.
In 1842, John Charles Frémont was

129
In 1842, John Charles Frémont was a hero symbol in the age of expansionism and empire. He said the west was the opening of unknown lands--offering the ability to learn without book. The Cosmos reveals itself without books.

This is Emersonian in nature.
In the early 1800s, Thomas Jefferson sent

130
In the early 1800s, Thomas Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark on an expedition and asked them to find Mastadons--it was believed that anything could happen in the west.
Indians were considered one of the many Western

131
Indians were considered one of the many Western wonders and were viewed as "noble savages." Indians were viewed as existing in a state of nature that was unregenerate, unsaved, not in grace with God. They were viewed as a natural people.
As White Civilization and Indian Civilization interacted

132
As White Civilization and Indian Civilization interacted both became corrupted. Indians became drunks, Whites took advantage of so called "easy" Indian women.
In 1846, Herman Melville's "Typee" was an autobiographical account of a

133
In 1846, Herman Melville's "Typee" was an autobiographical account of a shiprwreck on a south sea island. The book was an acount of Polynesian purity and the contamniating contact of white men.
In "Typee," Melville says Polynesians were

134
In "Typee," Melville says Polynesians were happier than the intellectual, self-serving Europeans. Eventually, the Polynesians find themselves dispossessed of the land of their fathers amidst the newly established European Villas and well cropped yards.
Middle Ground refers to the place

135
Middle Ground refers to the place between the urban eastern portion of the United States, and the completely undevoloped frontier of the west. The middle ground is not too settled and not too rural.
Krev Koor created the

136
Krev Coor created the Tripartite Division of the US.
The eastern section was known as "the corrupt east," the section that was partially developed was known as "the middle ground," and the section that was completely undeveloped was known as the Barbaric West.
The Picturesque style of painting is known as a style that is neither

137
The Picturesque style of painting is known as a style that is neither wild nor civilized. This style of painting likes to show, for example, temples in ruins to show the passage of time. Grass and vines then take over the temple. Temple used to be a symbol of a civilization yet now shows the union of nature and civilization.
Picturesque Painting is significant for the US because

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Picturesque Painting is significant for the US because it invited a person to meditate, dream, and
inspire a sense of melancholy. Combination of
old and new, civilized and uncivilized.

Tapped into the sentiment held by many of wanting to advance technologically but hold onto the values and truths of the past.
Inspires people to move west and thus increase the speed at which society was changing. The changes of society create anxieties that are dealt with in violence, fear, and separation.
Susan Fenimore Cooper wrote

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Susan Fenimore Cooper wrote "The Disolving View," which was called the homebook of the picturesque. Her essay imagined her looking over rural landscapes and being impressed by the softening haze of Indians. She imagines watch towers and stone bridges in the west.
Thomas Cole made literary landscape paintings with

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Thomas Cole made literary landscape paintings with Indians in a canoe, falling water, etc. Cole tried to create landscapes in which nature and civilization are in harmony. Actively tried to improve nature.
Edgar Allen Poe was very interested

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Edgar Allen Poe was very interested in landscape gardening and says that painters can make nature look better than it really is. Poe says nature has many defects.
Andrew Jackson Downing grew up in

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Andrew Jackson Downing grew up in Hudson, NY, and hoped to see the Middle Ground transformed into rolling lawns with streams passing through them. He rejected the formal gardens of the enlightenment and replace them with undulating lawns, trees set at vistas, and the taming of the frontier. Wants social cohesion.
Between 1810 and 1820, in Lowell, Massachusetts, Boston merchants

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Between 1810 and 1820, In Lowell, Massachusetts, Boston Merchants Lowell, Appleton, and Jackson create a factory in an undulating grassland. Flower boxes were placed in Mill windows, factory placed in a scenic rural location, and the workforce was limited to women who would rotate out after a certain amount of time to prevent the establishment of an entrenched Proletariat.
Lowell failed because

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Lowell failed because more factories were needed in the textile industry and not all of them could maintain these comparatively luxurious standards. Eventually, factories produce lots of pollution in the air from coal smoke. Irish workers are willing to work for less than mill girls.
In 1843, Nathaniel Hawthorne published

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In 1843, Nathaniel Hawthorne published "The Celestial Rail Road," a satire about the new technology of the day. In the story, Americans try to do away with the hardships of travel by building a railway to heaven. Mr. Smooth-a-Way smoothes away any hardships on the journey. Right before the Americans reach Heaven, a Devilish figure diverts the train tracks into hell.
Herman Mellville's "Paradise of Bachelors and the Tarturas of Maids,"

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Herman Melvilles's "Paradise of Bachelors and the Tarturas of Maids," had one story that dealt with a gentelmen's club in London in which a-sexual men have no contact with nature and spend their whole lives fascinated with money.
The other story in "Paradise of Bachelors and the Tarturas of Maids," dealt with

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The other story in "Paradise of Bachelors and the Tarturas of Maids," dealt with a journalist who is reporting on the new technology of paper mills, hears a hellish pounding sound, sees a once clear stream run red with blood. The maids are trapped in the mill--their young lives taken away from them.
Rape of the Natural Envirnment metaphor in Melvilles' "Paradise,"

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The Rape of the Natural Environment metaphor in Melville's "Paradise," is found.

1. Egg and Sperm--Paper production takes 9 minutes.

2. Severing of Ambilical Cord--paper is cut as it comes out by automatic knife

3. Afterbirth--stream runs red.
In "Bachelors," Women are

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In "Bachelors," women are sterile, nature is being raped by pollution. Gentelmen in first story live off paper of the girls in the mill.
Traits of Picturesque paintings include

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Traits of Picturesque paintings include gnarled, interesting looking trees, sunlight in the distance that causes you to want to go out to the horizon, figures that are dwarfed by the immensity of the scene, towers, bridges, temples, and natural ruins like dead trees.
"Coarse of Empires," were a series of paintings that

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"Coarse of Empires were a series of paintings that warned that America could overstep herself and fall as the Roman Empire did.
The first painting in Coarse of Empire represents the

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The first painting that Course of Empire represents is the Savage State--Native Americans, hunter gather civilization, steamy terrain characterize this painting.

The Second Picture represents the Pastoral State, an idealized version of the middle ground between civilization and savagery. No more steam and smoke on in terrain--only from temple. Herding, agriculture shown.
The 3rd painting is known as

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The thrid painting is known as "Consumption of Empire," and represents a wonderful natural scene by the artifice of civilized structures. Being overcivilized will incur the wrath of God.
The 4th painting is represents

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The 4th painting represents fires, riots, rapes, and earthquakes terrorizing the civilization.
The 5th painting is known as

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The 5th painting is known as Desolation--everything is gone, no sense of human prescence in the scene. Romantic picturesque imagery of ruins that show destruction.
George Innis created the Picturesque painting

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George Innis created the Picturesque painting "Wakawana Valley," which represented a train snaking through a valley with smoke coming from the roundhouse for locamotives, from behind the church, and tree stumps around the tracks of the train. Interesting tree; Huck Fin type figure in the middle.
The company that commissioned Innis' painting wanted it

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The Company that commissioned Innis' painting wanted it to represent the domestication of the landscape. Leo Marx interprets it this way in the 1960s. 30 years later in the 1990s, he interprets it as the rape of the natural landscape.