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51 Cards in this Set

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Name 5 alliphatic amino acids
glycine
alanine
valine
leucine
isoleucine
Non-Aromatic Amino Acids with Hydroxyl R-Groups (2)
serine
threonine
Serine
side group
alcohol
-CH2OH
Threonine
side group
alcohol
-CH(CH3)(OH)
Amino Acids with Sulfur-Containing R-Groups
Cysteine
Methionine
Methionine
side group
-CH2CH2SCH3
sulfur
Cysteine
side group
-CH2-SH
sulfoxide
Acidic Amino Acids and their Amides (4)
Aspartic acid
Asparagine
Glutamic Acid
Glutamine
Aspartic Acid
sidegroup
-CH2COOH
Asparagine
side group
-CH2C=ONH2
Glutamic Acid
side group
-CH2CH2COOH
Glutamine
side group
-CH2CH2C=ONH2
Basic Amino Acids (3)
Arginine
Lysine
Histidine
Arginine sidegroup
-CH2-CH2-CH2-NH-C=NH(NH2)
Lysine sidegroup
-(CH2)4-NH2
Histidine sidegroup
complicated N-ring
Amino Acids with Aromatic Rings
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine
Tryptophan
Phenylalanine
sidechain
-CH3-Phe
Tyrosine
sidechain
-CH2-Phe-OH
THINK TIRE
Tryptophan
complicated multi-ring
Imino Acids (1)
Proline
Proline
side chain
imino ring, stiff does not bend
There are two broad classes of amino acids based upon whether the R-group is ______ or hydrophilic.
hydrophobic
The hydrophobic amino acids tend to repel the aqueous environment and, therefore, reside predominantly in the ______ of proteins.
interior
hydrophobic amino acids do not ionize nor participate in the ______.
formation of H-bonds
hydrophobic amino acids do not ______ ionize nor participate in the formation of H-bonds.
ionize
The hydrophilic amino acids tend to interact with the aqeuous environment, are /are not involved in the formation of H-bonds
are
______ are predominantly found on the exterior surfaces proteins or in the reactive centers of enzymes.
hydrophilic amino acids
An amino acid with no ionizable R-group would be electrically neutral at this pH.
zwitterion
The imidazole ring of histidine allows it to act as either a proton donor or ______ acceptor at physiological pH.
acceptor
Histidine is frequently found in the ______ center of enzymes
reactive
Equally important is the ability of histidines in hemoglobin to ______ the H+ ions from carbonic acid ionization in red blood cells.
buffer
It is this buffering property of hemoglobin that allows it to exchange ______ and ______ at the tissues or lungs, respectively.
O2 and CO2
The primary alcohol of ______ and threonine as well as the thiol (-SH) of cysteine allow these amino acids to act as nucleophiles during enzymatic catalysis.
serine
The primary alcohol of serine and threonine as well as the thiol (-SH) of cysteine allow these amino acids to act as nucleophiles during enzymatic catalysis.
threonine
The primary alcohol of serine and threonine as well as the thiol (-SH) of cysteine allow these amino acids to act as ______ during enzymatic catalysis.
nucleophiles
The primary alcohol of serine and threonine as well as the thiol (-SH) of cysteine allow these amino acids to act as nucleophiles during ______ catalysis.
enzymatic catalysis.
The thiol of cysteine is able to form a ______ bond with other cysteines:
disulfide
Cysteine-SH + HS-Cysteine <--------> Cysteine-S-S-Cysteine
This simple disulfide is identified as ______.
Cysteine-S-S-Cysteine
cystine
The formation of ______ bonds between cysteines present within proteins is important to the formation of active structural domains in a large number of proteins.
disulfide
Disulfide bonding between ______ in different polypeptide chains of oligomeric proteins plays a crucial role in ordering the structure of complex proteins, e.g. the insulin receptor
cysteines
A tetrahedral carbon atom with 4 distinct constituents is said to be ______.
chiral
The one amino acid not exhibiting chirality is ______ since its '"R-group" is a hydrogen atom.
glycine
Chirality describes the handedness of a molecule that is observable by the ability of a molecule to rotate the ______ of polarized light either to the right (dextrorotatory) or to the left (levorotatory).
plane
All of the amino acids in proteins exhibit the same absolute steric configuration as ______-glyceraldehyde.
L-glyceraldehyde
D-amino acids are often found in polypeptide ______.
antibiotics
The aromatic R-groups in amino acids absorb ultraviolet light with an absorbance maximum in the range of ______nm.
280nm
The ability of proteins to absorb ultraviolet light is predominantly due to the presence of the ______ which strongly absorbs ultraviolet light.
tryptophan
Peptide bond formation is a ______ reaction
condensation
A number of hormones and neurotransmitters are ______.
peptides
several antibiotics and antitumor agents are ______.
peptides