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20 Cards in this Set

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Arginine
R
arg

-Charged AA which exhibits both hydrophobic and ionic properties (+ at physiologic pH)
-Exhibits resonance in the planar guanido group
-H bond donor
-Often methylated
What AA is this?
Proline
P
pro

-R group covalently bonded to the peptidyl-amino
-Cyclic ring constrains the rotation of the Phi bond which creates a permanent "chink" in the peptide chain
What AA is this?
Phenylalanine
F
phe

-Aromatic AA
-Absorb UV light and exhibit fluorescent properties; useful as probes of protein structure
-Planar ring system
What AA is this?
Tyrosine
Y
tyr

-Aromatic AA
-Absorb UV light and exhibit fluorescent properties; useful as probes of protein structure
-Planar ring system
-O aromatic with benzene ring
-Often PO4-alated in signaling molecules
What AA is this?
Histidine
H
his

-Polar AA (usually + at physiologic pH)
-amine pK is ~6, making it one of the strongest bases that exists at neutral pH
-one N can act as a H-bond donor while the other acts as an acceptor
-Involved in numerous enzymatic reactions
-Not aromatic (doesn't absorb UV light)
What AA is this?
Tryptophan
W
trp

-Aromatic AA
-Absorb UV light and exhibit fluorescent properties; useful as probes of protein structure
-Planar ring system
-N group can participate in H-bonding
What AA is this?
Lysine
K
lys

-Charged AA (+ at physiologic pH) that exhibits both hydrophobic and ionic properties
-Is often highly modified (ubiquitination, methylation, acetylation)
What AA is this?
Glycine
G
gly

-Smallest AA with no R group
-Provides significant conformational flexibility; often found in turns
What AA is this?
Asparagine
N
asn

-Polar AA
-amide form of aspartate
-Important in N-linked glycosylation (NXS/T)
What AA is this?
Alanine
A
ala

-Hydrophobic (aliphatic)
-Hydrophobicity increases with increasing # of C in sidechain
What AA is this?
Glutamate
E
glu

-Charged AA (- at physiologic pH) which exhibits both hydrophopic and ionic properties
-(-) charge at physiological pH due to COOH group with pKa of ~4
-Form salt bridges in proteins
-Important sidechains for chelating metal ions (Zn and Ca)
What AA is this?
Glutamine
Q
gln

-Polar AA
-Amide form of glutamate
What AA is this?
Aspartate
D
asp

-COOH with pKa of ~4 make this AA (-) at physiological pH
-Often form salt bridges in proteins
-Important sidechain for chelating metal ions (Ca, Zn)
-Exhibits hydrophobic and ionic properties
What AA is this?
Threonine
T
thr

-Polar AA
-OH groups are H bond donors and acceptors
-PO4-alated in many signal transduction proteins
-OH group site of O-linked glycosylation in cell surface proteins
What AA is this?
Serine
S
ser

-Polar AA
-OH groups are H bond donors and acceptors
-PO4-alated in many signal transduction proteins
-OH group site of o-linked glycosylation in cell surface proteins
What AA is this?
Cysteine
C
cys

-Polar AA; very impt. in disulfide bonding
-Very reactive (pK ~8.4)
-S=S Bond:
-Reduction of breaks them apart
-Are often found in oxidative environments (i.e. outside cell) such as hormones, cell-surface receptors, etc.
-can occur intra- or inter-protein
What AA is this?
Methionine
M
met

-Hydrophobic (aliphatic)
-Hydrophobicity increases with increasing # of C in sidechain
What AA is this?
Isoeucine
I
ile

-Hydrophobic (aliphatic)
-Hydrophobicity increases with increasing # of C in sidechain
What AA is this?
Leucine
L
leu

-Hydrophobic (aliphatic)
-Hydrophobicity increases with increasing # of C in sidechain
What AA is this?
Valine
V
val

-Hydrophobic (aliphatic)
-Hydrophobicity increases with increasing # of C in sidechain
What AA is this?