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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Amino Acid Metabolism
Happens in Liver

nitrogen is by product
Major events in Proteolytic breakdown
Parietal cells release HCL in stomach to denature protein
Cheif cells secrete pepsinogen
gatrin stimulates hcl and pepsin
pancreas pumps hco3 into intestine to neutralize ph
fats get emulsified with bile acids from liver
intestinal cells uptake amino acids and pass them to blood as single amino acids
Nitrogen Removal

N cant get into TCA
remove nitrogen and use carbon skeleton (alpha keto acid)

amino acid hands N group to Piridoxyl phosphate(cofactor) then passed to alpha keto glutarate to become glutamate
PLP=useful because of ring and aldehyde group

helod in enzyme by non covalent bond
when sustrate bonds with PLP makes a shiff base, internal
extenal schiff is more reactive
Urea Cycle
Happens in LIver, makes TCA cycle intermediate

begins in matrix and ends in cytosol
urea cycle in matrix
carbamoyl phosphate made by hco3 and atp and nitrogen group (carbamoyl phosphate synthase)

the nitrogen group comes from glutamate into alpha keto glutarate by glutamate dehydrog. and nitrogen released for use

carbamoylphosphate combines with ornithine to make citruline (ornithine trans carbamolyase)
continuing urea cycle in cytosol
1=citrulline into cytosol
combines with aspartate (2nd nitrogen source) to become argininosuccinate(argininosuccinate synthetase)

2=arginocuccinate becomes arginine and fumarate (TCA cycle)(argininosuccinase)

3=arginine with water turns into orhitine and urea (arginase)

urea diffuses out of cytosol to blood to kidney to get filtered
Connections between Urea cycle and TCA cycle
insert pic. 63 pg 17
ALT alanine aminotransferase
transfers the amino group form alanine to alpha ketoglutarate which forms pyruvate and glutamate
AST aspartate aminotransferase
transfers amino groups grom gutamate to oxaloacetate froming aspartate which is used as a nitrogen source in the urea cycle
the transfer molecule of amonia
made by glugamate and amonia
takes it to kidney for filtration
abundant in cells