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110 Cards in this Set

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General Johnny Burgoyne
surrenders army of 5000 men to the American troops during the Saratoga Campaign
Benjamin Lincoln
surrender at Charleston (Washington told him to leave)
puts down Shay's Rebellion
Gates
defeated at Camden by Cornwallis
completely destroys his army
Nathaniel Greene
born a Quaker, but obviously not a pacifist
Was a supply officer in Washington's army
Washington selects him to pick up the pieces of Gate's army
Guilford Court House- avoids a battle with Cornwallis in 1781
John Paul Jones
captain of the continental Navy
scotsmen
hates English
Bohamme Richard- given to him by the French
Flamborough Head (1779)- captures the British, Serapist, & sails her back to a French port
Cornwallis
Head of British army
October 1781- surrenders to Washington after the Battle of the Capes
Second major field army that surrenders to the Americans
Thomas Jefferson's views
Hates British & cities
optimistic view of man
loves Yeoman farmers
strict constructionist
states rights
Democratic
French Revolution= good thing
Thomas Jefferson's Presidency
cuts national debt in half
expires national bank
he was an active president, but this wasn't a revolution from Adams
Lord Dunmore
British
opens up recruitment for slaves and promises them freedom when their enlistment runs out
Molly Pitcher
travelled alongside her husband
He has a heatstroke
she picks up his gun and fights
George Washington
Halts Newburgh Conspiracy (1783)
I have gone gray in your service and now Im going blind...
John Adams
2nd President- 1796
John Jay
1st Chief Justice of the US- 1789- more of a political figure

Jay's Treaty 1794-
-increased trade between US & GB by getting the ports back
-Gives compensation for loyalists
-Pays all debts before the American Revolution
-Trade the same in peace & war
-public opposed this as did Jefferson & Madison (thought ties with Britain would increase Federalist power)

One of the people responsible for the Federalist Papers
James Madison
After the meeting at Mt. Vernon (1795) which involved a boundary dispute between MD & VA, he wonders if this same spirit can be applied to fixing the AoC

Keeps a diary of the Constitutional Convention which is discovered 53 years after the proceedings

Leader of the Jeffersonian Party

One of the people responsible for the Federalist Papers

Thinks we need a Bill of Rights

Against National Debt & a National Bank

VA resolutions- against Alien & Sedition Acts

Non-intercourse Act
Macon's Bill No. 2
Daniel Shays
Shay's Rebellion 1786
farm revolt, unhappy about financial situations and debt
organizes a militia
attempts to seize gunpowder & supplies
this fails
March out on Springfield
Benjamin Lincoln puts this down while they are sleeping
Makes people support the upcoming convention
Patrick Henry
"I smell a rat"

Refuses to support the Constitutional Convention because he thinks its a coup
Beer
thought convention was a coup by wealthy elites
Alexander Hamilton
Negative view of the people- greedy & impulsive
Government is there to fix what those impulses can cause

Elitist- looking for natural elites to run the country
President should be elected for life

Statist- State is there to curb the power of the people & expand business & industry

Stronger power to make war & tax

Fear of the mob

Federalist Papers

National debt makes other countries have a stake in America's success

wants national bank under necessary & proper clause (Article 1 Section 8)

thinks French Revolution is horrible
Citizen Genet
French ambassador to the US during the French Revolution

Actions endangered neutrality between Britain and France

One of the few things Jefferson & Hamilton agree on

Hamilton saves him from the guillotine
"Mad" Anthony Wayne
After two armies were crushed by Native forces, Congress creates an entirely new army under him

3000 troops

Fallen Timbers- Wayne runs across Warriors, outnumbers them & destroys this native band, burns native encampments & livestock

Treaty of Greenville (1795)
natives relinquish all lands
given cash compensation
creates cycle of dependency on Federal $$
Thomas Pinckney
Pinckney's Treaty (1795)
-made boundary lines between Spain & US
-Got all of the Miss R for navigation
-national hero for this

XYZ Affair
- one of the delegates who went to go negotiate with France (with John Marshall & Elderidge Gerry)
- they left because they were offended & refused to pay Taliram to be able to negotiate
Aaron Burr
He was the VP nominee for the election of 1800 & he ties with Jefferson

Hamilton hates & fears him so he sways Federalists (who still hold the majority) to vote for Jefferson

Burr Conspiracy
kills Hamilton in a duel
flees and makes friends with James Wilkinson
raises an army to seize Louisiana and create a new nation
tried for treason but he is eventually acquitted by John Marshall

Shows how unsettled things are in America
Pierre Charles L'Enfant
Designed Washington DC
Jefferson is the first president to live there for his entire term
John Marshall
4th Chief Justice- 34 years
Appointed by Adams because of the Judiciary Act of 1800

Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Judicial Review

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Maryland tries to tax the national bank; Federal government superior to state government

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Gibbons run by Federal government and other line run by Ogden interfere; Fed gov has the power to regulate interstate commerce
Robert Livingston
Louisiana Purchase for $15 million
Doubles US territory & they no longer have to worry about foreign interference on the Mississippi R.

Thomas Jefferson worries about this because he doesn't know if he has the power to acquire new territory, but Congress reminds him that he has the right to make treaties, so it is approved
Thomas Pinckney
Pinckney's Treaty (1795)
-made boundary lines between Spain & US
-Got all of the Miss R for navigation
-national hero for this

XYZ Affair
- one of the delegates who went to go negotiate with France (with John Marshall & Elderidge Gerry)
- they left because they were offended & refused to pay Taliram to be able to negotiate
Aaron Burr
He was the VP nominee for the election of 1800 & he ties with Jefferson

Hamilton hates & fears him so he sways Federalists (who still hold the majority) to vote for Jefferson

Burr Conspiracy
kills Hamilton in a duel
flees and makes friends with James Wilkinson
raises an army to seize Louisiana and create a new nation
tried for treason but he is eventually acquitted by John Marshall

Shows how unsettled things are in America
Pierre Charles L'Enfant
Designed Washington DC
Jefferson is the first president to live there for his entire term
John Marshall
4th Chief Justice- 34 years
Appointed by Adams because of the Judiciary Act of 1800

Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Judicial Review

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Maryland tries to tax the national bank; Federal government superior to state government

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Gibbons run by Federal government and other line run by Ogden interfere; Fed gov has the power to regulate interstate commerce
Robert Livingston
Louisiana Purchase for $15 million
Doubles US territory & they no longer have to worry about foreign interference on the Mississippi R.

Thomas Jefferson worries about this because he doesn't know if he has the power to acquire new territory, but Congress reminds him that he has the right to make treaties, so it is approved
Commodore Thomas Hull
Finishes fleet before the British for control of Lake Champlain

Battle of Plattsburg
-Turns his ship at anchor
-defeats British fleet
-British retreat back to Canada
Lord Wellington
British want him to lead a fight against Americans during the War of 1812, but US lacks center of gravity so concessions from Americans is lunacy
Andrew Jackson
builds up a large army for the Creek War (1814), which was marked by several massacres)

he then uses his army in Battle of New Orleans (1815)
1600 Brits killed; 71 Americans killed
**takes place after Treaty of Ghent had already been signed
James Monroe
Southern, Republican, everyone loves him
His Presidency marks the end of the 1st party system & coincides with the Era of Good feelings
Apart of the "VA Dynasty"
Monroe Doctrine (1823)- European countries colonizing land/ interfering with states in the Americas would be viewed as an act of aggression requiring US intervention
British wanted this to be a joint message, but their ultimate goal was to keep Spain from colonizing so CHECK
John C. Calhoun
Secretary of War under Monroe Administration
creates and expandable army for wartimes
wants to create infrastructure & internal improvements, but this is a nonstarter
Decatur
Second Barbary War (1816)
captures Algerians and forces them to sign a treaty
this is quickly followed by Tripoli & Tunis, because after British defeat French navy, they stop paying tribute to these barbarians
Trafalgar
1805

Sea battle between France, Spain & Britain

Asserts the supremacy of the British Navy
Embargo Act
1808

Under Jefferson
Restricted American ships from engaging in foreign trade
Subsequent non-intercourse acts
Led to the War of 1812 between US & Britain
Treaty of Ghent
1814

restored US & UK of Britain to status quo antebellum

before the Battle of New Orleans in 1815

Under James Madison
Rush-Bagot
1817

between United States & Britain
demilitarization of Great Lakes & Lake Champlain
Made relations between US & Britain better
Omissions in the Constitution
No mention of citizenship

Native Americans ignored

Does BOR's apply to the states?
1775
April-
Battles of Lexington & Concord that began the revolutionary war

Paul Revere's Ride

July-
Olive Branch Petition- last attempt at reconciliation
King George declares the colonies are in "open rebellion"
1776
British withdrawal from Bunker Hill
Pyrrhic Victory for the British

July 4th- Declaration of Independence read (drafted in June, signed in August)

AoC started
1777
AoC implemented

Continental Army is credible & intact

French openly ally with Americans after Saratoga

Local Rebellion is now a world war
1779

(2)
Attempted invasion of England by Spain & France
Fleet of ships & 40,000 men
Hasn't been successfully done in 700 years
Outbreak of scurvy halts this

Flamborough Head-
John Paul Jones captures the Serapist & sails it back to a French port
1781

(4)
Cowpens-
-most decisive victory for the Americans
-Under Morgan; crushes Tarleton
-900/1100 troops lost
-It was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British.

Guilford Courthouse-
-British victory
-Before the battle, the British appeared to have successfully reconquered Georgia and South Carolina with the aid of strong Loyalist factions, and thought that North Carolina might be within their grasp. In the wake of the battle, Greene moved into South Carolina, while Cornwallis chose to invade Virginia. These decisions allowed Greene to unravel British control of the South, while leading Cornwallis to Yorktown and surrender

Battle of Yorktown/Siege of Yorktown-
-last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America
-the surrender of Cornwallis' army prompted the British government eventually to negotiate an end to the conflict

Treaty of Paris negotiations begin
1783
Treaty of Paris
-Britain- shifts to India, loses empire in NA, still have Canada
-Spain- Florida
-France- bankruptcy
-America- Independence, fishing rights off Great Banks, territory to the Mississippi, do not get Canada

Newburgh Conspiracy
-Potential plot to overthrow the government
-Continental army had not been paid for 3 years, frustration
-Congress pushing for financial reform
-Alliance between unpaid army officers & members of congress (Hamilton & the two Morris)
-One of Gates' aids lists grievances about Congress & ways to fix these problems; senior officers should be held in encampment
-Plot halted by Washington's intervention "Gentlemen, I have gone gray in your service and now it seems I am going blind"- shows the men his sacrifice
-no one knows how serious this coup was
1774
Declaration of rights issued to passively resist Britain
1785
Meeting at Mount Vernon over boundary disputes between MD & VA; Madison wonders if this same spirit can be applied to fixing the AoC
1786
Shay's Rebellion
-Daniel Shay
-armed uprising in central and western Massachusetts (mainly Springfield) from 1786 to 1787
-Most of Shays' compatriots were poor farmers angered by crushing debt and taxes.
-Benjamin Lincoln put down this threat whilst the men were sleeping
-There was a lack of an institutional response to the uprising, which energized calls to reevaluate the Articles of Confederation and gave strong impetus to the Philadelphia Convention which began in May 17, 1787
1787
Northwest Ordinance
-Only major success achieved by Congress
-Model for statehood
*appointed government
*legislature at 5k
*Statehood at 60k
**slavery is outlawed for the first time
1789
French Revolution
*Hamilton thinks this is horrible
*Jefferson thinks it will be good in the end
**Brings democracy to Europe
1790
-Final ratification of the constitution; RI is the last one to do this because they were threatened with trade sanctions

-Compromise of 1790- war debts from Northern states assumed by the Federal government in exchange Southerners get the capital in their part of the country- MD & VA
1794
Jay's Treaty
gets ports back & gives compensation to loyalists & pays all debts from American Revolution; trade same in peace as in war
-public pissed

Whiskey Rebellion
-excise tax against Whiskey, Western Penn. farmers refuse to pay tax bc its only on them, Washington puts this down, Gov's authority will NOT be challenged
1795
Pinckney's Treaty
boundary settled, US got all of the Miss R for navigational purposes

Treaty of Greenville-
natives relinquish all claims to their lands; given cash compensation, fall into a cycle of dependency
1796
Washington's Farewell address
No political parties and no foreign entanglements

John Adams wins election against Jefferson- VP is the second highest vote getter (Jefferson)
1798- 1800
Quasi War
Battles between US & French ships, Navy Department established

New Army & Provisional established (Hamilton & Washington)
1800
Election of 1800-
Jefferson defeats Adams & ties with Burr

Judiciary Act of 1800-
Adams authority to nominate new people
1801
Alien & Sedition Acts expire
Jefferson opposed them through the Kentucky Resolutions & Madison opposed the acts through the VA resolutions
1803
Marbury vs Madison- judicial review
1804
12th amendment passed by DR's- president & VP are a package deal
1805
Treaty with Tripoli- no more bribes/ tax on US ships

Trafalgar- most decisive naval victory for British- asserts naval supremacy
1808
Chesapeake Leopard Affair

Embargo Act- under Jefferson; subsequent non-intercourse acts; restricted American ships from engaging in foreign trade; led to the War of 1812 between US & Britain
1809
Non-intercourse Acts- opens trade to everyone but Britain & French
1810
Macon's Bill No. 2- restart trade with whoever drops sanctions first- France
1812
Declaration of war- Brits agreed to drop Orders of Council but its too late
1813-1814
Creek War- Jackson protects New Orleans in 1815 with the misfits from the Creek War, crushes Brits after peace treaty was already signed
1816
Tariff of 1816- 1st protective tax- northerners support it

Second Barbary War
1817
Rush Bagot- demilitarizes Lake Champlain; improves relations between GB & US
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire.[nb 2] The Americans declared war in 1812 for a number of reasons, including trade restrictions, impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, and the humiliation of American honor. Until 1814, the British Empire adopted a defensive strategy, repelling multiple American invasions of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. However, the Americans won control of Lake Erie in 1813, seized parts of western Ontario, and destroyed the power of Britain's Indian allies both in Canada and in the Southwest. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the British adopted a more aggressive strategy, sending in large combat armies. British victory at the Battle of Bladensburg in August 1814 allowed the British to capture and burn Washington, D.C. American victories in September 1814 and January 1815 repulsed British invasions of New York and New Orleans.
The war was fought in three theatres: At sea, warships and privateers of both sides attacked each other's merchant ships. The British blockaded the Atlantic coast of the U.S. and mounted large-scale raids in the later stages of the war. Both land and sea battles were fought on the frontier, which ran along the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River and separated the U.S. from Upper and Lower Canada. The South and the Gulf coast saw major land battles in which the Americans destroyed Britain's Indian allies and defeated the main British invasion force at New Orleans. Both sides invaded each other's territory, but these invasions were unsuccessful or temporary. At the end of the war, both sides occupied parts of the other's territory, but these areas were restored by the Treaty of Ghent.
In the U.S., battles such as the Battle of New Orleans and the earlier successful defense of Baltimore (which inspired the lyrics of the U.S. national anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner) produced a sense of euphoria over a "second war of independence" against Britain. It ushered in an "Era of Good Feelings", in which the partisan animosity that had once verged on treason practically vanished. Canada also emerged from the war with a heightened sense of national feeling and solidarity. Britain regarded the war as a sideshow to the Napoleonic Wars raging in Europe; it welcomed an era of peaceful relations and trade with the United States.
The American Revolution
Military, political, and social revolution
Some aspects more radical than others
Not as radical as French Revolution or Russian Revolution

Military success allows the other two to occur
Most conservative part of the whole conflict
Doesn’t change how other wars are fought
Beginning of the Revolution
April 1775: British to seize colonial powder
Paul Revere’s ride to Lexington and Concord for gunpowder and other goods
Militia called up and await the British
Colonial force 1/10 the size of British forces
Shots exchanged
British destroy supplies and go to conquer

British harassed en route back to Boston
Brits upset that they “picked them off from the trees” because this wasn’t done in a dignified manner
Colonial War Aims: American Revolution
Maintain independence
Colonists are willing to accept political recognition
But by the NEXT YEAR, independence is the goal

Seize new territory
Canada
Colonists assume Canadians will be sympathetic to their cause
Brits wouldn’t have a foothold on the continent and it would open new lands

Secure fishing rights
Off the Grand Banks
New England- fishing is the primary source of income & revenue

Return of property
Colonists want property back; the land the Brits are in
British War Aims
Reunite the Empire
NA is a source of wealth- largest British population overseas
There are definite cultural and economic ties
Cannot tolerate their authority being upsetted
Protect Loyalists (1/4- 1/3 loyalists)
Necessary to restore British power
Come from all classes- have personal or economic ties to Britain/ they see benefits in staying with Britain

Maintain power relative to France
Global power & global interests
Have to worry about NA, India, Caribbean, Mainland
But through all this, they see their main enemy as France
Colonial Offensive, 1775-1776
Force British from Boston- Siege of Boston
Massachusetts Bay- seed of power
Bunker Hill
Brit forces advance on the Cont. Army’s troops
Israel Puttman- “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes”
Colonists finally run out of ammo and Brits take the hill
Pyrrhic Victory- although Brits won, they lost a lot of men and the colonists are able to reorganize- worst loss for Brits in entire war
British withdrawal in spring 1776
In one year, colonists organize an army and expel the British

Seize Canada
Failed invasion by Montgomery and Arnold
Montgomery dies
Arnold tries to take Quebec, but he doesn’t have enough men
The British come and Arnold retreats South to the colonies
British Offensive, 1776
Emphasis on New York
Base of operations- want to isolate New England from the rest of the colonies
Washington moves troops there to stop this from happening
He doesn’t have enough men, they are nearly captured, but they escape

City seized but colonies not appreciably weakened
British do not understand that this isn’t a major concern for the Americans
Colonies are willing to trade space for time

Arnold slows British at Lake Champlain
His fleet was destroyed in battle
Right before winter, this wasn’t a common practice

Washington barely escapes
Counterattack at Trenton- catch Hessians by surprise since it was winter
All Washington needs to do is survive and have a credible army and they can resist the British
British Offensive, 1777
Three pronged offensive to converge on Albany
They incorrectly assume that if they cut off New England and take “key points”, that they can break them
Burgoyne (north) and Howe (south) the two largest forces
Howe instead seizes Philadelphia- where congress had been meeting (should have proceeded up the Hudson)
they think this will end the entire revolution
Colonists lead them on a wild goose chase around Pennsylvania
General Johnny Burgoyne eventually cut off
Saratoga- surrenders his army to the Americans
The War at the end of 1777
Their biggest disadvantage was that they had to project their defensive over the Atlantic & then they had to worry about all the above threats
Allied Operations in the American Revolutionary War
French
West Indies, 1778-1780
Seize Island of Dominica from Britain

Spain
Gibraltar, 1779-1783
They NEVER get it back; surround it for 4 years, but it NEVER falls

French and Spanish
Invasion of England, 1779
There were a fleet of ships and 40,000 men (England hasn’t been successfully invaded for 700 years), outbreak of scurvy among the men & the invasion is CANCELED
British Southern Offensive: A.R.
Assumptions
Loyalist support stronger in Southern colonies

Closer to British bases in West Indies
Easier to consolidate resources

More potential for profit
Capturing slaves & sell them back on the open market
British Operations Invasion of the South: American Revolution
Two American armies captured or neutralized
Surrender of Charleston
Benjamin Lincoln (American) was ironically already waiting for the British
British surround Charleston and force Lincoln to surrender (even though Washington told him to leave)
Gates defeated at Camden by Cornwallis
Completely destroys Gates’ army
After 6 months, two American armies had been lost
Nathaniel Greene
Born a Quaker, but he was kicked out because he is obviously not a pacifist
Washington selected him to pick up the pieces of Gates’ armies- was the supply officer for Washington
Separates army into smaller detachments- scattered along Carolina countryside (cannot keep the army fed in one piece)
Reliance upon militia and guerilla forces- Thomas Sumpter (lovely stories)
Major Battles in the South: A.R.
January 1781: Cowpens- most decisive victory for Americans
Morgan crushes Tarleton
Out of 1100 British troops, 900 die


March 1781: Guilford Court House
British victory
Cornwallis tries to run Nathaniel Greene down, but Greene avoids a battle with him
The Naval War: AR
Continental Navy
Most major vessels lost by end of 1779
1776- battle supposed to go to VA, but instead they go to Bahamas and gets a few guns
Important because British have the largest and most powerful Navy

Privateering- legalized piracy
Authorized attacks on British merchant vessels by American ship captains
Makes British insurance rates higher

John Paul Jones
Captain of the Continental Navy, Scotsmen, hates the English
Ranger- falls apart
Bonhomme Richard- ship given to him by the French (he names it after Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac)
Flamborough Head (1779)
Jones captures the Serapist, Brit ship; the Bonhomme Richard sinks, so Jones fixes up the Serapist and sails it back to a French port
This happens 1-2 miles from the coast
Major outcry among British; major moral booster once this reaches US
Yorktown Campaign
Desire for Joint Operations
Washington hoped to use French naval power against the British

Cornwallis moves to Virginia for resupply
Washington and French forces move south
They are unable to leave Yorktown Peninsula ; French navy battles the Brits in Yorktown

Battle of the Capes
British unable to resupply Cornwallis
Irony: British actually show up BEFORE the French did

October 1781: Cornwallis surrenders to Washington
2nd major field army that surrenders to the Americans
After Yorktown
British focus on West Indies since they will lose North America

Gradual exhaustion of France and Spain
Spain becomes weak and France runs out of resources

British naval buildup-have good lines of credit
Could Britain have won the war?
They fought 3 countries singlehandedly, only lost colonies in NA
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Long negotiating process- started in 1781
Results
Britain
Empire shifts towards India
Lose empire in NA (doesn’t have much effect on Brit strength)
Still have Canada
Spain
Florida
France
Get nothing that they hoped for; America claimed land all they way to the Mississippi and they actually try to BLOCK this
Bankruptcy- leads to crisis of FRENCH REVOLUTION
United States
Secures most goals- INDEPENDENCE
Get territory to Miss
Get fishing rights off Canadian coast
DON’T GET CANADA
Trading relationships broken- causes SERIOUS economic problems
The Loyalists
Drawn from all walks of life
From farmers to elites
About 1/3 of the population were loyalists
Local battles with Patriots
Mostly intimidation
Sometimes armed encounters with a couple hundred men
Loyalist migration- no lasting effects
80k flee to Canada, West Indies, and England
Fear of the rabble
Democracy was defined as “rule of the mob”
They thought there would be utter chaos and wanted to get out while they could
Ben Franklin’s son appointed New England’s royal governor a few years before the war breaks out
In prison during the way, then he migrates to England
Slavery during the War
Abolition popularized in northern colonies
Not profitable there
Abolition societies
Formed by the Quakers in 1775; copied in other Northern states
Legal restrictions
Vermont, Pennsylvania & Massachusetts are the first 3 states to ban slavery
Pennsylvania is at the forefront of advancing these liberties
Southern attacks on slavery- too strong and profitable to get rid of
Thomas Jefferson
Questions the effects slavery has on slaves and on the white man who owns the slaves
He had a very sloppy mind- he owns slaves and even fathered children with slave, Sally Hemmings, yet questions the practice
Manumission laws are relaxed
Slave owners can allow their slaves to go free
Many slave owners do this (mostly when they die, slaves go free in their wills and then they migrate North
End of the Apprentice System
Feudal-era method of job training
Boys from the ages of 10-12 would be apprentices to anyone from blacksmiths to cobblers

Subservient relationship
Apprentices submit to their masters
Many apprentices question if they should have to submit to another person
Sometimes peaceful; other times apprentices physically lash out
This leads to them finally ONLY willing to submit themselves economically

War destroys the system
Submission no longer desirable
System breaks down by 1800
For the same reasons, indentured servitude also disappears around the same time
Legal changes regarding the penal system during the A.R.
Decline of capital and harsh punishments
Murder is only used for extremely heinous crimes
Executions decline
Harsher punishments also recede (mutilating, branding, whipping- all die out)

Rehabilitation more common
Pennsylvania first one to believe this
The belief that someone can be changed and turned into a productive member of society
American ideas
Power derived from the people- People are sovereign
Greco-Roman tradition (city states- Athens)- they perfected democracy thousands of years ago with the reign of Caesar
Collective vs. individual good
Links back to enlightenment era ideals
John Locke argued that men must sacrifice some of their liberty for a responsible government- this idea carried over
State bills of rights
Explicitly listed the rights that the people have
VA was 1st, other states follow their lead
PA State constitution
PA eliminates upper house of legislature- unicameral, NO governor, only a single state legislature, term limits to its representatives- 1 year terms, but can only serve 3 out of every 6 years
Weak executives- some governors do not even get veto power
Articles of Confederation
Started in 1776
Equal representation- each state has an equal voting share, unicameral legislature
Proportional contributions based on population
Congress to set Western boundaries
In theory, Maryland (and all of the other colonial charters) controlled land all the way to the Pacific
Implemented by 1777, not entirely ratified until 1781
Very LITTLE change in the daily running of things
Weakness of the Articles
Could not force state compliance
1781- Articles of Confederation formerly ratified by all of the states
Elected Congress replaced the imperial congress, but the colonies are still separated
“league of friendship” between the colonies
Congress can mediate state disputes, but colonies can IGNORE them at WILL

No executive or judiciary
Belief that executive authority reeked of monarchy- NO KING GEORGE
No national court system
ALL power rests in the hands of the legislature

2/3 majorities to pass laws
Need UNANIMOUS vote to change the articles
Government has no power to levy taxes
2-7 men per state sent to Congress, but they only had 1 vote
Need unanimity within the state to vote yes

Government assumes only clearly defined powers
War and diplomacy, state disputes, coinage, mail (the ONLY thing they do well), Native Americans
Flaw in the Treaty of Paris
ONLY had fishing rights off of Canada, no trade provision within the the treaty
Results of the Election of 1800
-DR's pass 12th amendment in 1804
-peaceful transfer of power
battle of put in bay
1813
americans and british clash, but americans crush british so they now have control over lake eerie
battle of the thames
1813
William Henry Harrison, American, unable to take Canada, Tecmuch is killed, american victory
Results of the War of 1812
Federalist party ceases to exist
Expressions of nationalism
Reaffirms independence "2nd war for independence"
The Era of Good Feeling
1816-1824
marks the end of the first party system
time of political unity & nationalism
Tallmedge amendment
1815
crime to import slaves in Missouri
longterm manumission (slaves freed at age 25)
Missouri Compromise
brainchild of Henry Clay
maine is broken off and is a free state
12:12
missouri not allowed to discriminate against free blacks
slave boundary at 36'30''
prevents sectional conflict from getting any worse
precedent for balance in senate
John Quincy Adams
Divisive candidate
Favored in the North
The rest of the country does not favor him as a party candidate
Southerners and westerners dislike him (known for being aloof and unfriendly like his father
They also do not trust his policies
Old Federalists
William Crawford
Heir to VA dynasty?
Born in VA, but raised in Georgia
Caucus chose him as their nominee
Divisive
Favored in the South
Henry Clay
dislikes Crawford; he was a War hawk - W
So Clay decides to run himself
Southern nationalist
Represents Kentucky (Westerner)
Participated in a number of duels
American system
Very strong nationalist
Akin to the old federalist way
Wants to pass a tariff to pay for a system of internal improvements for primarily commercial purposes
Problem- his political views line up with J Q Adams- but the men are very different
Adams is very studious and aloof and rude; Clay lives it up and gets crazy with the treaty of Ghent in Belgium
Andrew Jackson
War hero
Slashed by a British officer when he was 14 when he refused to stand down
Participated in duels
Anti-bank
Only candidate that everyone has heard of- everywhere

receives the most popular votes and electoral votes
Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams- N; aloof; bad people skills; very divisive; old federalist
William Crawford- S; heir to the VA dynasty?; caucus chose him as their fav pick
Henry Clay- W; warkhawk, dislikes crawford so he decides to run himself; southern nationalist; views line up with John Q Adams
Andrew Jackson- war hero; slashed by a British officer when he was 14; participated in many duels; antibank; only candidate that everyone has heard of; receives most electoral & popular votes

Clay is out, Crawford gets sick

So its just down to Adams & Jackson

Clay dislikes Jackson because he wouldnt let him into his inner circle

Clay lobbied against Jackson & becomes Adams' secretary of state (their politics are very similar)
John Q Adam's presidency
Not well-suited for leadership role
Served as a senator, he was secretary of state
Economy, society, and politics are all changing

Policy frustrations- has a hard time doing anything
American System blocked
Those who are supportive of Jackson block the implementation of this system
Latin American conference
Simon Bolivar calls this (Panama)
Adam (diplomat) wants to send a delegation
Blocked again; Southerners object to sending delegates to a conference where there might be black people (Haitians), relent once conference is over

Tariff of Abominations (1828)- not popular
Protective tariff on New England woolen products (wool processors want this)
Specific American good
Several other goods are added to try and gain support
Bill goes through Congress, but it is very unpopular
Southerners don’t like this, because they don’t care about northern manufacturing
John Q Adam's presidency
Not well-suited for leadership role
Served as a senator, he was secretary of state
Economy, society, and politics are all changing

Policy frustrations- has a hard time doing anything
American System blocked
Those who are supportive of Jackson block the implementation of this system
Latin American conference
Simon Bolivar calls this (Panama)
Adam (diplomat) wants to send a delegation
Blocked again; Southerners object to sending delegates to a conference where there might be black people (Haitians), relent once conference is over

Tariff of Abominations (1828)- not popular
Protective tariff on New England woolen products (wool processors want this)
Specific American good
Several other goods are added to try and gain support
Bill goes through Congress, but it is very unpopular
Southerners don’t like this, because they don’t care about northern manufacturing