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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Magna Carta
- basis of government & law
-Eng. nobles forced King John to accept it in 1215
- limited King's ability to tax, guaranteed due process, and the right to a trial
* benefitted English nobles
Parliament
- during the 1300's nobles evolved into a lawmaking body
- bicameral: 2 house legislature
-House of Lords (nobles)
-House of Commons (elected by men who owned property)
* British government
English Bill of Rights
- 1685 when James II came to power he revoked New England colonies charters (ruled w/o parliament)
-1689 overthrown in Glorious Revolution"
- replaced by William & Mary who signed the "Eng. Bill of Rights" which guaranteed a number of freedoms & reinstated the Magna Carta
-stated the monarch could not keep a standing army in times of peace
* William & Mary
habeas corpus
- reinstated in the "Eng. Bill of Rights
- nobody could be held in jail w/o being charged with a crime
* Bill of Rights
salutary neglect
- the Glorious Revolution encouraged England to adopt a colonial policy that allowed its colonies local self-rule
- In return the Crown expected economic cooperation and assistance in wars against France & Spain.
* England's expectations of its colonies
mercantilism
- purpose of the colonies was to increase the wealth of the mother country
- the mother country built wealth by developing its industries and exporting manufactured goods in exchange for gold & silver
- encouraged monarchs to minimize imports from rivals
- by selling more than it purchases the empire build wealth
* rewards of developing colonies
Navigation Acts
- England believed controlling colonial commerce was the key to imperial power
- controlling trade they could collect more duties
- use the monies collected to build a stronger navy and purchase guns
- inacted mid 1600's
- it stated only Eng. ships with Eng. sailors could trade with Eng. colonies
- valuable goods such as tabacco and sugar could be shipped thru England
* benefits to England
Zenger
- in 1734 Zenger's paper, NY Weekly Journal, printed articles articles critisizing the Eng. governmant
- arrested and jailed for 8 months
- released
* freedom of the press
Glorious Revolution
- inspired rebellions in MA, NY, and Maryland
- Maryland was made a royal colony
- merged MA and Plymouth colonies into one and allowed them to chose an appointed council to the governor
*
staple crop
- crops grown that were in steady demand for
- example tabacco and wheat from the southern colonies
cash crop
- crop grown for sale
- example NC produced cattle and lumber
George Washington
- Va governor sent G.W. to run the French out of Ohio Valley
- his srrender set off the Seven Year War around the globe
* Seven Year War
French and Indian War
- also known as the Seven Year War
- war fought from 17754 - 1763 in which Britain and its colonies defeated the French and its allies gaining control of eastern N. America
- Treaty of Paris ended the war
- Mississippi River became the boundry for Britain from Sapin
* 1754 - 1763
Pontiac's Rebellion
- 1763 uprising in 1763 by Indians in Great Lakes Region
- Indian's goal was to lure the French back to N. America by weakening the English
Proclamation of 1763
- British King proclaimed all colonists must settle east of the Applachian Mountains
- Indians made peace in return
Albany Plan of Union
- Franklin proposed in 1754 to creat one government for the 13 colonies
- failed among the colonies
Stamp Act 1765
- Parliament passed a bill requiring all colonists to pay a tax on all printed material
- first time Parliament imposed a direct tax on colonies
- colonist argued they had no representation in Parliament therfore Parliamnet could not levy a tax on them
John Adams
- prominent MA lawyer who believed as John Locke did in people's natural rights
Patrick Henry
- drafted the Virginaia Resolves which was a radical document based on John Locke's ideas of natural rights.
Sons of Liberty
- organization of colonists formed in opposition to the Satmp Act and other British imposed laws/taxes
- Samuel Adams most prominent
nonimportation agreement
- boycott encouraged among the colonists by the Stamp Act Congress.
- Stamp Act Congress was attended by 9 colonies
Townshend Acts
- parliament levied a new indirect tax om commerce
- colonists refused to pay and resented that the money from the tax would go towards paying the monarchs chosen governoe in the colonies.
- protests in Bosaton
- custom officers seizedJohn Hancock's ship - Liberty for smuggling
Boston Massacre
- Great Britain sent troops into Boston in response to the protests
- British soldiers fired into the crowd killing 5 colonists
- Crispus Attucks killed
Committe of Correspondence
- led by Sam Adams
- provided a network of communication, leadership, and promoted cooperation among the colonists
Boston Tea Party
- 12/16/1773 protest against the British tax on tea.
- although the tea was cheaper the colonists smuggled tea to the colonies and were angered by the act which they considered an act of trickery
- colonists disguised as Native Americans dumped team into the Boston Harbor
Intolerable Acts
- in response to the dumping of the tea, Parliament closed the port to trade until the colonists paid for the tea and the tax on it
- also called the Coercive Acts
- parliament wanted greater control over the colonies so they changed the structure of the government within the colonies
First Continental Congress
- 1774 colonists were angry at Great Britain closing the port and changing the government at will in the colonies, they called for a boycott of British goods
- Patrick Henry proclaimed: "Give me liberty or give me death."
British model goverment
- 3 branches
- executive power belonged to the monarch
- legislative power to Parliament:
- House of Lords
- House of Commons
- colonies had 2 house legislature:
- elected assembly
- council of of colonists elected by governor
Sugar Act 1764
1764 new Prime Minister George Grenville proposed to raise money for G.B.'s large war by collecting duties already in effect
- created custom officers and courts to deal with collections and smugglers
Quartering Act 1764
Parliament passed an unpopular law requiring colonies to provide housing and supplies to British troops