Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
King and Walker
“The provision of Benefits by Interest Groups in the US”

-Olson said that groups need to provide potential members with private and material benefits to attract them (he says people join groups to receive material benefits or because they would be barred from something if they don’t…such as unions)
-King and Walker contradict Olson, saying that under certain conditions some groups can overcome the “collective-goods dilemma” without having to provide private goods to potential members (Olson may have had some points…but overall his argument was incomplete)
-this works well for some groups (AARP…American association of retired persons)
They argue that this theory doesn’t work for other groups; some other groups rely on conscience or calls to protect public interest to attract members
-some people join groups when there is a threat to the cause
-businesses: people often join these groups to further the collective goals of their institutions
-when people are faced with threat to things/rights they already enjoy they are more likely to join groups to enhance the collective benefits
“For a More democratic union”

-In some ways, the Constitution falls short in supporting its own democratic goals. And if it fails in important respects to measure up to such standards, shouldn't we undertake a serious effort to remove its defects?
-Important democratic deficiencies remain, including those found in the Electoral College and the concept of equal representation (less populated states votes count for more then more populated states)
-argues that the American system of government is not emulated by other countries, and not extremely effective (ranks in the bottom third in some areas)
-things should be changed/we should begin to propose change…though significant changes are almost impossible, political scientists, constitutional lawyers, and others have begun not only to challenge the undemocratic aspects of our political system but to propose significant changes that we could undertake within the limits of the present Constitution.
Gideon’s Trumpet

-famous case, that overturned Betts v. Brady (a previous SCOTUS decision that poor people are only entitled to a lawyer if they are insane or incompetent or committed a capital crime or something like that)
-Gideon was convicted w/o a lawyer in Florida; he appealed to the SCOTUS, arguing that ‘right to attorney should be included under 14th amendment’. He won. Now everyone has to have a lawyer
-shows insight into the SCOTUS…how things work…each justice works as an individual, very secretive, they have a lot of discretion in which cases they take and who they appoint as lawyers…there main barrier is whether it falls under their jurisdiction
“There he goes again: The Alternation political style of Bill Clinton”

Anything goes governing style:
1.pre-occupation with public policy (very into the details of policy
2.political passion
3.good with words/speeches (can gain supports with the way he spins things effectively)
4.not-so-great-communicator the public details, but fails to explain the broad, underlying principles
5.charm, and good cheer
6.lack of self-discipline (this is where his trouble starts…whether it be in an over-loaded policy agenda, too long of speeches, or private scandals
7.didn’t organize the white house well short on experience in Washington and political skill
8.ability to rebound in the face of misfortune
The Hidden Hand Presidency

-great political activity beneath the placid surface of the Eisenhower White House.
-examines the continuing significance of Eisenhower's legacy for the larger understanding of presidential leadership in modern America.
-Ike was a deft behind-the-scenes mover and shaker who held all the reins of power in HIS hands. He consistently refused to engage in "personalities" and would deal with political challenges with tact and persuasion, often hidden from public light.
Schlesinger Jr
“Rating the Presidents: Washington to Clinton”

-Schlesinger Jr. follows in his father footsteps and conducts a poll where historians rate the presidents best to worst
-many presidents don’t think that its fair to judge a president unless you have been in that position yourself (it is impossible to know what they go through)
“Leadership by Definition: First-term reflections on George W. Bush’s political stance”

-bush elevated the value of definition in presidential leadership and made it central to his political stance
-a pres.’s leadership posture: the terms of pol. Engagement: he projects to those he intends to move along his chosen course
-it is: an assertion of pol. Authority
-for foes: it is a standard of judgment
-Bush leads by definition…bush intends to be a leader who lays out the terms and upholds them against all comers
-bush benefited b/c people didn’t want to change commander’s in chief in wartime
Schraufnagel and Mondak
“Issue positions of democrats and republican in the U.S. house”:

-in house, role call votes tell us how member of congress behave, but don’t necessarily tell us what those legislators truly thing or prefer
-purpose: assess the extent to which dems and GOPs in the house support similar or dissimilar issue positions
-different positions on all topics tested except tax deductions
Governments Greatest Achievments

-books talks about government greatest achievments...and the process of getting to them
-the point is that it is basically a long, difficult process to make any major accomplishments in government
“Where there’s smoke"

-philip Morris documents: concerned with the company’s struggle to prevent the government from legislating or regulating cigarettes out of profitable existence
-aggressive lobbying presence in Washington
-there memos obtained by doctor organization provide insight into lobbying methods, campaign funding, policy priorities, and advocacy
-Philip Morris strategy: shower potential friends in congress with attention, campaign contributions, support for pet projects, rallying diverse coalitions to protect tobacco interests
-sent cigarettes to smoking congressional aids, campaign contributions, luxuries for congresspersons
-trying to promote a pro-smoking environment in Washington
Hibbing and Theiss-Morse
“Process Preferences and American Politics”

-people believe they have been excluded from politics, but they don’t want direct democracy
-by measuring the extent that people belief that policy process is inconstant with their own process preferences is an important variable in understanding the public mood
Understanding what the public prefers in terms of processes and structures of government is important because negative attitudes may:
1. discourage prospective politicians from serving
2. sitting politicians from tackling controversial policy issues
3. ordinary people from participating in politics
4. make some people see government as less legitimate and maybe even take their obligation to comply with government regulations lightly
- People are displeased with: interest groups, campaign finance system, and politicians who are accorded a large staff and salary
- Compared to policy perceptions, people don’t generally view the process preferences of their own party above that of the opposing party. That is, the partisan bias in assessments of process preferences is much less pronounced than in assessments of policy preferences
Parker and Davidson
“Why do Americans love their congressmen so much more than their congress?”

-Congress is judged, increasingly in unfavorable terms, on the basis of its performance on domestic policy, legislative-executive relations, and the style and pace of the legislative process. Congressmen, on the other hand, are judged-usually favorably-primarily on the basis of their services to constituents and their personal characteristics
- citizens expectations for congress are vague and anchored to generalized policy and stylistic concerns, their expectation for their own reps are unmistakable. Legislators are judged very largely on the way they serve their districts and communicate with them.
-Successful performance of this aspect of the reps job typically pays off handsomely, as indicated by incumbents' high rates of re-elecgtion. Yet such judgements on the part of voters imply sanctions as well: legislators who lose touch or who sem preoccupied with national issues may by disciplined by declining support or even defeat.
“Running scared”

because of the frequency and high cost of U.S. elections and the relative weakness of the two major parties, our politicians live in a constant state of fear for their careers, which causes them to campaign constantly at the expense of governing thoughtfully (let alone courageously). This in turn has damaging implications for public policy.
“Conflict and compromise”:

-how congress makes the law
-history of family leave bill in congress
-basically it took a ridiculously long time to get accomplished
“going nowhere: A gridlocked congress”

-gridlock is only natural with the way that our political system is set up; separated institutions sharing and competing for power
-but gridlock varies; sometimes congress is remarkably successful and other times it’s just in stalemate
-dissappearance of political center, there are less moderates som when two parties are polarized, parties have little incentive to agree, making stalemate more frequent
-institutional rules: such as filibuster in the senate