Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
New York Sun
1833, founded by Benjamin Day-1 cent, sensational, crime
New York Herald
1835, founded by James Bennett-2 cents, much larger circulation, finance/"extra"/sports
New York Tribune
1841, founded by Horace Greeley-1 cent, circulation becomes very large, philosophical, Clay, impassioned
New York Times
1851, founded by Henry Raymond-1 cent, relatively small, neutral, Book Review, nonpartisan, foreign
Nine Elements of Journalism
1) first obligation to truth
2)first loyalty to citizens
3)discipline of verificiation
4)maintain independence from those they cover
5)monitor power
6)forum for criticism and compromise
7) good writing makes significant interesting and relevant
8)good editing makes news comprehensive and proportional
9)personal conscience
Five Rules of Verification
1) Never add anything
2) never decieve
3) be transparent--disclose conflicts & evaluate sources
4) rely on orginial reporting
5) humility
Theory of Interlocking Public
Investigative Journalism
involves wrongdoing
Three Types
originial (his own reporting),
interpretative (takes a report and analyzes)
reporting on investigations (ex. Ken Starr)
First Amendment
1) Establishment
2) Free Exercise
3)Free Speech
4) Free Press
5) Right to Assemble and Petition
Abrams v. United States
1919-free speech/russian leaflets/upheld lower court
Gitlow v. New York
1925-14th Amendment extends bill of rights to states/communist leaflets still banned
NY Times v. Sullivan
1964-Civil Rights Advertisemnt/Lower Courts Reversed/"Actual Malice"
Tinker v. Des Moines
1969-black armband not disruptive/reversed lower court/"School Gates" & Freedom
Cohen v. CA
1971-F the Draft allowed in courtroom/reversed lower court
Miller v. CA
1973-obscenity/porn mailings/upheld
Memphis Press Scimitar v. Nichols
1978-never got to higher court/juxtaposition
NAACP v. Claiborne Hardware
1982-free speech/boycott/threatened other blacks
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
1988-student journalism/must be specified as a forum for student expression/reversed Tinker?/reversed lower court
RAV v. City of St. Paul
1992-crossburning/reversed lower court/allowed
Virgina v. Black
2003-crossburning again allowed/too specific preventions