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29 Cards in this Set

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Writs of assistance
George Grenville began a program in 1764 with the Sugar Act. This expanded the use of writs of assistance, which are general search warrants; a writ of assistance authorized customs officials to search for smuggled goods.
The Sugar Act
North Carolina Regulators
Began in 1766, inspired by the uproar against the Stamp Act but targeting the colonial elite, not Britain. 6000 western farmers demanded confirmation of land titles and the end of speculators' monopoly of best land. They also protested corrupt local officials, excessive court fees and refused to pay taxes and closed several courts. In 1771, when the government sent in the eastern militia, two thousand regulators met them at Alamance Creek but were dispersed. They ceased their activities in 1769 when the legislature established a circuit court system for the entire province.
Stamp Act
Gaspeé Incident
Conflict between Great Britain and the colonies in 1772. Began in Rhode Island when more than 100 men burned the British schooner Gaspeé and wounding the commander, William Dudingston. The Gaspeé enforced the sugar act and harassed merchant vessels sailing through Narraganset Bay. The Crown named a Commission of Inquiry to locate perpetrators and send them to England for high treason. In response, Virginia assembly appointed a Committee of Correspondence to monitor British policy. Within a year the committee had coordinated opposition to Britain's restraints.
The Sugar Act
Committees of Observation
English parliament passed four Coercive Acts after Boston Tea Party occurred, in 1773, to have colonists pay for the tea. They were to close the port of Boston until payment was received. The Committees of Observation were created to close all of the colony's ports to Britain and establish a better communication through the colonies. They would expose violators of the boycott as "enemies of American Liberty." This was revolutionary because Americans invested sovereignty in themselves rather than the parliament.
Boston Tea Party
Battle of Bunker Hill
Winter of 1774-1775 tensions mounted between the colonies and Great Britain and King George III considered the colonies to be in rebellion and instructed General Gage to take forceful action. On May 10, 1775, Washington was assigned as commander in chief of the Continental Army. A patriot detachment of this army began to fortify the Charlestown heights in expectation of a British attack but they built on Breed's Hill rather than the higher less exposed Bunker Hill. They lost the battle but disposed of more than 40% of their british opponents.
Red coats attack Charlestown Heights
Philip Schuyler
A general who was instructed by Congress to invade Canada with the goal of making Canada the 14th British colony. They also hoped to obtain help from French Canadians and possibly the French. It was a failure, Schuyler was ill, indecisive and too slow, wasting several days. In September Brigadier General Richard Montgomery took over.
Invading Canada
William Howe
In early 1776 the British, under General William Howe, withdrew from Boston and sailed to Nova Scotia to prepare for an invasion of NYC. London sent 370 transports with supplies and 32,000 troops who were German mercenaries AKA Hessians from the principality of Hesse-Cassel.
Nova Scotia to NYC
Nathanael Greene
Led 1500 troops from Rhode Island during American Revolution in 1775. After July 1780 when General Gates lost the battle against Lord Cornwallis at Camden, and Green took over as commander of the southern army. During 1780 and 1781 Greene rebuilt the southern army using both traditional and guerilla forces. Also supported the practice of offering African American slaves as bounty for enlistment.
Blacks as bounty
Southern army
Fort Wilson Incident
The depreciation of currency in 1779 was blamed on "a few overbearing Merchants, a swarm of Monopolizers and Speculators, and an infernal gang of Tories." In this incident armed members of the Philly militia met at Burns's Tavern on Oct 4 to exile 4 suspected Tories from the city. They marched them to James Wilson's house ("Fort Wilson") where shots rang out and 6 people died, the majority were militiamen. This terrified people because the lower class had attacked the Whig elite.
Depreciation of currency
Rising prices of goods
Society of Friends
Argued that black bondage violated basic Christian concepts like the belief that all humans are equal in the eyes of God, but were unable to convince their meetings of this because many of the Friends were rich slave owners. In 1770s and 80s they contributed to the growth of free black communities in Philadelphia, NY and other northern towns. By 1780s slavery was less important in the north than south and this permitted slavery to be undercut there.
Shays's Rebellion
Farmers who couldn't sell their goods to Britain became endebted to the states and were taxed, but were unable to pay the tax. Their property was taken and sold and if there was still debt the farmers went to prison. The Country party ousted the Mercantile party and issued paper money with stiff fines for creditors who refused to accept it. In other states run by the Mercantile party they detested paper money. When state gov'ts failed to help, debtors in New England, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina protested militantly, even further in Massachussets. In the fall of 1786 farmers closed down country courts to prevent further hearings for debt. Perhaps 1/4 of soldiers in the state were involved calling themselves "Regulators." Their opponents called them Shaysites when Daniel Shay emerged as leader of what became known as Shay's rebellion. The gov't requested aid from Congress and they complied but states failed to cooperate. Massachussets passed the Riot Act and suspended habeas corpus. They were ambushed in a blizzard and quickly dispersed, some fled and some were imprisoned. Voter turnout skyrocketed in 1787 election and te new assembly was more responsible to rural debtors and quickly restored the civil rights of the insurgents.
Refusal of paper money and tender.
Ohio Company
Congress attempted to sell the land in the Northwest Territory but only found a few individual buyers. They accepted a deal from a group of New England speculators known as the Ohio Company. They sold them 1.5 million acres for $500k in depreciated bonds, or less than $0.10 per acre in hard money. Given the confederation's debt the sale was welcome. Congress also enacted the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, at the Ohio Company's request, which established firmer congressional control over the territory.
Northwest territoy
Virginia Plan
Reps arrived on May 25, 1787 to discuss the articles of confederation but Madison thought it to be beyond repair and drafted, in advance, the Virginia Plan. It proposed a powerful central government, dominated by a National Legislature of two houses (bicameral). It was opposed because it gave greater national representation to the more populated states like VA, PA, and MA.
Introduction of bicameral legislature
Great compromise
In May 1787 state representatives gathered in Philadelphia and a plan was proposed by a delegation from CT that established a bicameral Congress with a House of Representatives, based on a state's population, and the Senate, in which each state would be represented equally.
Electoral college
During the 1787 gathering of delegates they established the question of how to elect the individual who would head the executive branch. An electoral college was empowered to elect the president and vice president, with each state allotted as many votes as it had representatives and senators.
Pierre Charles L'Enfant
The Residence Act of 1790 gave the president the authority to select a 10 mile square location along the potomac. L'Enfant designed the layout of the capital and its major buildings. The government could not afford to complete the project in a timely manner and L'Enfant protested and was fired. His ideas were still used without him.
Capitol Hill
Bank of the United States
A bank chartered by the US Congress in February of 1791. It would hold the federal gov't's funds and regulate state banks. Its purpose was to expand money supply thereby encouraging commercial growth. The north approved of it while the south did not. It was considered immoral and monopolistic by some.
Federal filth
Whiskey rebellion
In 1794 Washington sent troops to PA against farmers who had not paid whiskey tax since 1791. The farmers resented the tax because distilling whiskey from grain made their produce less bulky and thus less expensive to transport and they also drank it. The farmers held protest meetings and eventually burned barns and destroyed stills of people who paid tax.
Those farmers gettin' drunk.
Junipero Serra
The spanish feared russian and british incursions along the pacific coast as they expanded throughout california. the gov't sent missionaries and soldiers north from baja, ca in 1769 to establish missions and presidios along the coast. Jose de Galvez enlisted Serra, a franciscan priest, to establish the missions.
spanish in CA
Citizen Genet
Just weeks prior to the Proclamation of Neutrality in April 1793 the new minister from France, Citizen Genet, arrived in Charleston. He enlisted American mercenaries to assist the French in seizing British shipping vessels and then taking them to U.S. coasts and selling the goods and giving mercenaries a cut. This threatened neutrality and the U.S. closed ports and requested for him to return.
Proclamation of Neutrality
XYZ Affair
In May 1797 the French confiscated non-military American ships. Delegates from the U.S. were sent to negotiate with the French but were to meet with intermediaries known as X, Y, and Z. They were told to pay a bribe of 250k, apologize and assume all French debt to the U.S. but the deal was refused.
Quasi-War with French
Fries rebellion
due to the alien and sedition acts in 1798 there was tax rebellion among german americans in easter PA. petitions were circulated among rural pennsylvanians against the tax but congress ignored the petitions. people in the area held public meetings and stopped tax assessors from doing their work. in march after 18 suspected resisters were arrested. John Fries, a 50 year old auctioneer of upper bucks county, led a band of 140 men to release the prisoners.
alien and sedition acts
Second Great Awakening
During the turn of the century there occurred the national Methodist conference of 1800, in Baltimore, where there was an outpouring of religious fervor. There were a series of revivals that lasted into the 1830s. Large numbers embraced evangelicalism, because they thought they needed to create a more godly nation.
Mother Ann Lee
Officially called the united society of believers in christ's second coming, the Shakers came to america in 1774 when Mother Ann Lee arrived from britain with eight disciples. The group grew after Lee's death in 1784.
The Shakers
Handsome Lake
one of many prophets who wielded great influence during the revivalism of the natives in the first decade of the 1800s. a respected warrior and leader of the Allegany Senecas, fell ill in 1799, seemed to die, then came back to life saying that he had had a vision in which messengers told him to become a prophet. through revelations he told his people to stop drinking alcohol and practicing witchcraft and also advocate peace. he embraced the US acculturation policy from the quakers to adopt white farming methods and gender roles but opposed further large-scale land cessions, the whiskey trade, social dancing in couples, and gambling with cards.
don't drink!
midnight appointments
Jefferson gave it this name. the appointments adams made as a lame duck after he knew that the election of 1800 was lost. republicans accused him of staying up til midnight to sign commissions for federalist officeholders. adams only appointed 6 republicans to about 600 total positions
6 repubs
Marbury v. Madison
In 1803, William Marbury commenced a suit under the Judiciary Act of 1789, which granted the Supreme Court the power to require secretary of state Madison to hand over Marbury's Commission. The first decision by the supreme court to declare unconstitutional and void an act passed by Congress that the Court considered in violation of the Constitution. The decision established the doctrine of judicial review, which recognizes the authority of courts to declare statutes unconstitutional.
Judicial review
Non-Importation Act
Great Britain and France wanted to stop each other from provisioning with the US. Britain destroyed the French and Spanish navies and impressment became a problem for the Americans. To avoid war Congress passed this act in 1806 banning specified British goods, and the president opened negotiations with Great Britain to end impressment and recognize neutral trading rights. No agreement was reached and it became violent.
Great Britain's impressment
"War Hawks"
After the Treaty of fort Wayne in 1809, giving away 2.5 million acres to the US, the natives failed in a pan-Indian movement throughout the trans-Appalachian west because by 1811 large white populations formed a barrier between north and south. Americans thought this to be a threat and in November 1811, governor of the Indian Territory, William Henry Harrison led a force against Prophetstown and burned it and claimed victory but this just pushed the natives closer to the British. The news got to Washington and "war hawks" in congress advocated preparations for war. Ay april 1812 only 1/4th of Congress opposed this action, and those who did claimed madison wanted war for terroritorial expansion.
war of 1812.