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47 Cards in this Set

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Eli Whitney
one of the most educated americans of his time (graduated from yale)

1794: invents the cotten gin and changes america and makes slaves lives easier although people needed more slaves to produce more cotten. by the 1840's the U.S. produced 2 million bails of cotten per year
Cumberland Road
1st extensive highway paved in gravel
was completed in 1815
ran from the Ohio Valley to Vandelia
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad
B & O railroad line
1st chartered in 1812 and charted the first steam locomotive "tom Thumb"
McColluch vs. Maryland
1819: Baltimore
conflict: authority of federal gov't vs authority of state gov't
concluded: the federal gov't was superior over thestates in matters of finance (states can't oversee federals)
Gibbons vs. Ogden
1824
Conflict: interstate commerce
Federal Government wins, decides what can be taxed and distributed
Nat Turner
Afro-American preacher, radical against slavery (abolishonist)
revolts in south Hampton Virginia (1831) against slave owners - 55 people (women and children) killed in 4 days
he was captured and executed
Erie Canal
completed in 1825 and connects NY's major towns Buffalo and Albany ships food (oats) and causes New York to take over as the biggest trading city (over Philly, Baltimore, and Boston)
Natchez Trace
oldest path/road in the U.S. Native American Trail then a road
runs from Natchez Mississippi to Nashville Tenn. commericial and military way of getting around
Dartmouth COllege vs. Woodward
1816 - New Hampshire
College Appointments and College Constitutions vs State Legislature who wanted to appoint college board members
John Marshall gives colleges permission to choose so they don't break the law
John C. Calhoun
Vice President for Jackson and John Quincy
spokesman and starter of a movement in the south for slavery and state rights (resigned from presidency)
Land Ordinance of 1800 & 1818
lowered minimum # of acres of western land you could buy from the government from 640 to 320 to 80. and form $2 to $1.25
Protective Tariff of 1816
1st official protective tariff, by madison
delt with protection of U.S. textiele industry
Lowell Mills
recreated from English mills by Samuel Slater
1st industrialized/mechanical textile plant 1st power looms - created major child labor
Cult of Domesticity
1800's - believed that a woman's place was in domestic pursuits
Horice Mann
boston lawyer - started 1st public school system
belived ignorance wasn't reason for nations problems but actually quantity and quality - all classes should have an education
American Colinization Society
1817 - wanted humanitarianism for slaves - to free them wanted to buy free & christianize the slaves and then ship them back to africa if they wanted - not really successful (slavery continued)
Genteel Women
women who bought into the Cult of Domesticity
thought men were superior

OPPOSITE: Mary Kary Thomas - went to Branmeyer woman's college
Panic of 1819
deals with loans - started in 1804 and continued on - gov't said that they would no longer allow the purchase of land on a loan, only cash - done by 2nd Bank
resulted in a 6 year depression & bankrupcy
Presidential Elections of 1820 & 1824
1820: James Monroe won by a landslide in popular votes
1824: Jackson won populare vote but Quincy was appointed by Electoral College and house of Reps decides John Q. Adams
National Trade Union
1834: 1st true labor organization to represent lots of jobs
Charles Finney
Former school teacher and lawyer became a christian preacher and started revival meetings
abolitionism
quakers & in 1807 women join
idea to abolish slavery
Susan Miller
Euphamism for a women who leaves home and gets a job, sends money back to her hom and marries later in life
William Lloyd Garrison
established 1st Federalist Newspaper "The Liberator"
was an abolishonist
led to the Gag Roll of 1836 - congress' decision to never discuss slavery again
2nd National Bank
chartered in 1816 - financial institution favored by the heirs of Jefferson, who defended it with arguments borrowed from Hamilton
Calhoun
southerner who led the fight for the protective tariff of 1816
Webster
new englander who opposed the protective tariff of 1816
American System Program
a plan propsed by Henry Clay designed to bind the sections together economically through a tariff and internal improvments
Transportation Program
this piece of legislation passed by congress but vetoed by the PRes. embodied the principle of federeal funds for internal improvements
Virginia Dynasty
the term used most often in a derogetory sense to describe the ling of presidents from jefferson, madison to monroe
Era of Good Feelings
false term used to describe the administrations of Monroe, when there was one dominant party (not federalists)
Corruption Institution
the term used to describe banks (Western) that were cahrtered with indufficient funds and that often followed unsound policies
land ordinance of 1818
it stimulated sale of western lands by allowing purchasers to buy as little as 80 acres for $1.25 an acre
Cumberland Road
an early example of a major "internal improvement" it began in western Maryland and ultimately ran through the Ohio Valley to Illinois
Missouir Compromise
the important agreement was a major attempt to avoid further friction between the sections by maintianing a section balance
Mason Dixon Line
north of this line which was also the southern boundary of Missouri - slavery was forbidden in the ramaining territory of the louisiana purchase
McColloch vs. Maryland
in this case marshall upheld the constitutionallity of the second bank of the united states and struck down an attempt by a state to tax the Bank out of Exsistance
Cohen vs. Maryland
in this case Marshall held that the Supreme Court may review decisions of state supreme courts that involve the powers of federal government
Gibbons vs. Ogden
in this case marshall upheld the principle of federal regulation of interstate commerce adn struck a blow as an anttempt by a state to interfere with interstate commerce
Fletch vs. Peck
in this case Marshal held that a legislative grant obtained by fraud was nevertheless a contract within the meaning of the Constitution and hence could not be impaired
Dartmouth vs. Woodward (ii)
in this case marshall again handed down a decision protecting private property by holding that a charter was a contract
Bounderies Convention of 1818
under this agreement the northern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase was set at the 49th paraelle
Convention of 1818
under this treaty, the western boundary of the louisiana Purchase was made to zig zag northwesterly until it reached the 42nd parallel
George Canning
this haughty british foreign secretary who inited thsi united states to participate in a joint declaration warning European powers to keep hands off Latin America
John Q. Adams
this stiff necked American Secretary of State (and president) advised against accepting the british offer to warn European Powers to keep hands of latin america
MOnroe Doctrine
its two basic features were non-colonization and non-intervention
Treaty of 1846
the southern limit of Russian claims was set at the line of 54°40' by this treaty