Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How did the great compromise solve problems facing the new republic?
The problems facing the new republic were
1)A weak central government
-Hard to ratify treaties (9 states to pass law, 13 to change)
-States did not pay taxes, confederation was low on money
(military men who not getting paid, revolution was stopped by George Washington)
-many wanted to replace individual state commercial policies with a national one
-these diverse demands had grown so powerful that the issue was no longer whether the confederation should be changed but how drastic the changes should be. Even the defenders of the existing system reluctantly came to agree that the government needed strengthening in its weakest point, its power to tax.
-a convention of special delegates was called to gather in Philadelphia to consider ways to "render the constitution of the Federal government adequate to the exigencies of the union.
-George Washington did not support convention until Shays Rebbellion, (founding fathers)
-the Virginia plan called for a new national legislature consisting of two houses,(also Judiciary, executive, and Legislative)
-members of the upper house were to be elected by the lower house under no rigid system of representation; some of the smaller states may have no representatives in the upper house.
-they agreed to permit the members of the upper house to be elected by the state legislatures rather than by the lower house of the national legislature, each state would be assured of at least one member in the upper house.
-(small vs. large states, would states be equally represented in the upper house, or would the large states have more members than the small ones? Would slaves (who couldn't vote) be counted as a part of the pop. in determinig the size of a state's representation in congress. (delegates with large slave populations wanted it both ways)
-commitee was established to resolve the disagreements, produced proposal which became the basis of the "Great Compromise"
-the proposal called for a legislature in which the states would be represented in the lower house on the basis of pop., with each slave counting as 3/5.
-it proposed that in the upper house, the states should be represented equally with two members apiece.
-the representatives of the southern states feared that the power to regulate trade might interfere with their agrarian economy, which elied heavily on sales abroad and with slavery.
-the convention agreed that the new legislature would not be permitted permitted to tax exports; congress would also be forbidden to impose a duty of more than $10 a head on imported slaves, and would have no authority to stop the slave trade for twenty years.
-the delegates who viewed the continued existence of slavery as an affront to the principles of the new nation agreed to it because they feared that without it the constitution would fail.
How does the concept of Compromise and Federalism reflect the classical legacy of balance and order?
-the people had the power to elect officials
-real power came from the people
-everyone was represented based on their population
-actual representation instead of virtual representation,people actually had power over the government.
How do the Federalist papers harness human self interest?
-the federalist papers were written to defend the constitution
everyone wants their own
-competition and competing factions would stop any government from taking supreme control
-national government actually less likely to create tyranny
-also capitalism would make more money
How does the Constitution distribute power among three vying groups - the federal/national gov't, the state gov'ts, and the individual citizens.
How can both the national government and the state governments exercise sovereignty at the same time?
-at all levels of government, was controlled ultimately by the people
-federal government was to have broad powers, including the power to tax, regulate commerce, control currency, and to pass such laws as would be necessary for carrying out its other responsibilities
-was the stipulation that of the Articles that each state shall retain every power, the constitution accepted the existence of separate states and left important powers in their hands.
-many thought the only way to avoid tyranny was to keep government close to the people. A republic, they thought must remain confined to a relatively small area, these assumptions led to the belief that the individual states must remain sovereign
-madison however, helped break the grip of these assumptions by arguing that a large republic would be less, not more likely to produce tyranny, many different factions
separation of power- judicial, legislative, executive
-(checks and balances)
-the bill of rights was created to legitimize the new government in the eyes of its opponents, congress approved twelve amendments, ten of which were ratified by the states
-nine of them placed limitations on congress by forbidding it to infringe on certain basic rights, the tenth reserved to the states all powers except those specifically with held from them or delegated to the federal government.
What are the conflicting ideologies of Federalist and Republicans?
-the Hamilton program increased taxes heavily, it benefited the aristocracy, an organized opposition arose consisting of mostly small farmers who bore the brunt of taxation
-the federalist opponents, creating the Republican party, believed that the current government were doing many of the same things that the same things that the corrupt British governments did
-federalists- strong central government, inclusive- anything the constitution does not specifically forbid, it allows
-republicans- weak central government, exclusive - anything the constitution does not specifically allow, it forbids
-back then the national government was for prevention, now it is provision
Be able to identify reasons for passing the Alien and Sedition acts, and reasons for countering with the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions?
-xyz affair- french agents
-the quasi war
-the Alien Act placed new obstacles in way of foreigners who wished to become American citizens, it strengthened the president's hand in dealing with aliens, the sedition act allowed the government to prosecute those who engaged in "sedition" against the government. in theory only libelous or treasonous activities were subject to prosecution; but since such activities were subject to widely varying definitions, the law made it possible for the federal government to stiffle virtually any opposition
-these were in part a way for the federal government to silence republican opposition
-the virginia and kentucky resolutions used the ideas of John Locke to argue that the federal government had been fromed by a contract among the states and possessed only certain delegated powers. Whenever it exercised any undelegated powers, its acts were "unauthoritative, voi, and of no force."
-they had the right to nullify the appropriate laws
-only Virginia and Kentucky declared the congressional statutes void.
Why was the revolution of 1800 so called?
-adams and Jefferson election
-ugliest in American history
-Jefferson accused of being a dangerous radical that would bring on a reign of terror comparable to the French Revolution
-Adams as a tyrant conspiring to become king
-the republicans viewed their victory as a new era, one on in which the true principles had been founded would once again govern the land.
-federalism ended
How was Jefferson the personification of his era? (consider varying kinds of expansion connected with your outline - nationalism as expansion, philosophical expansion, economic expansion, geographic expansion.)
Jefferson was a pragmatic idealist
-he was a peoples president
-further separation of religous and civil worlds
-public education
-cultivating independent culture that was purely American, movement towards public education, stressed American values adn American arts
purpose- unity in a diverse country
philosophy-second great awakening
-God should be a part of everyday life, all individuals are able to control their spiritual destiny through life-style choices, idealism- attracts many African Americans and women
-focus on individual as a spiritual sovereign
economy-industrial revolution
-English textile industry
-cotton gin (King cotton),slavery boomed, class distinctions, transportation -steamboat, railroads
Did Jefferson's political decisions reflect a loose (inclusive) or strict (exclusive)reading of the constitution?
-Jefferson said and sought after an exclusive reading of the constitution, but used an inclusive view in a variety of situations
-midnight judges, Jefferson tries to appoint new judges but fails
-Luisiana purchase- increases land
-Burr conspiracy(pragmatic)
How did the War of 1812 result from a very expansionism characterizing the Jeffersonian era? (i.e. how did naval, western, and philosophical tensions arise from changes discussed in outline sections I, II, III, IV, & V?)
Be able to identify reasons for naval tensions, western tensions, philosophical tensions (arising from nationalism); also consider the solutions to these tensions.
Be able to identify the Treaty of Ghent.
treaty of Ghent