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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
administrative agencies
Government organizations that are responsible for implementing the law
advice and consent
The constitutional authority of the Senate to review and approve presidential appointments and treaties. Treaties require a 2/3 vote and presidential appointments require a simple majority vote to enter into effect.
appointment power
The authority of the president to select individuals to serve in nonelective government jobs.
The collective organization of permanent government offices or bureaus.
Department heads within the executive branch who serve as advisors to the president.
chief executive
The head of the executive branch of a government.
chief of state
The ceremonial head of a government.
chief of staff
The person who runs the White House Office and who serves as a primary advisor to the president.
civil service
The employees of a government.
commander in chief
The head of the military forces of a nation.
electoral college
The body officially responsible for electing the president and vice president of the US.
emergency powers
The authorities claimed by the president during times of national crisis.
enabling legislation
A congressional law that creates a federal agency and defines that agency's purposes and powers.
executivee agreements
Binding international agreements that are made by the president and do not require Senate approval.
Executive Office of the President
The office composed of the various executive staff agencies that provide advice and administrative assistance to the president.
executive order
A rule issued by the president that has the force of law.
executive privilege
The presidential claim that officials of the executive branch may refuse to appear before or provide information to legislative committees or the judiciary.
Action taken by the House of Representatives to initiate the removal of the president from office for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors" as authorized in Article 1 of the Constitution.
independent executive agency
A federal executive agency that is directly accountable to the president but is not a cabinet department.
independent regulatory commission
A federal executive agency that is not a cabinet department and is not directly accountable to the president.
inherent powers
Presidential authorities derived from practice and from the broad interpretation of the specific constitutional powers given to the president.
kitchen cabinet
A group of informal advisors to the president.
line-item veto
The ability of an executive to veto specific provisions within a piece of legislation. The president of the US does not have the constitutional authority to exercise the line-item veto.
The release of a convicted or alleged criminal from the legal consequences of his or her real or supposed offense. The president of the US may grant a pardon before, during, or after a trial.
Pendleton Act
The 1883 act that established a merit-based hiring system for civil service employees.
pocket veto
A veto that results when the president refuses to sign a bill and Congress adjourns within ten working days of that bill's submission to the president.
The greatest number of votes received by a candidate. A plurality is not as large as a majority.
The presidential postponement of the execution of a criminal sentence.
state of the union address
Annual message given to Congress by the president of the US.
statutory powers
Authorities granted to the president by congressional legislation.
veto power
The president's constitutional authority to signal his disapproval of congressional legislation, thereby preventing it from becoming law.
vice president
The elected official who serves under the president and will succeed to the presidency in the event of the temporary disability, death, removal, or resignation of the president.
War Powers Resolution
A 1973 law specifying the conditions that must be met in order for the president to use armed forces abroad without congressional approval.
White House Office
The personal office of the president
Does the Constitution provide for the direct election of the president?
No. It states that the president be chosen by the electoral college. The electoral college is a body composed of 538 electors selected by the district of columbia and by the states, each of which has a number of electors equal to its number of representatives in both houses of congress. The candidate who wins the majority of the electoral college vote becomes president.
Is it possible for a candidate who wins fewer popular votes than his or her opponent to become president?
Yes. Because the president is chosen by the electoral college, it is possible for a candidate who does not win the popular vote to become president provided he or she wins a majority of votes in the electoral college.
What happens if the electoral college does not produce a majority of votes for any one presidential candidate?
If no candidate wins a majority of votes in the electoral college, the Constitution provides that the House of Representatives will choose the president from among the 3 presidential candidates with the most electoral votes.
Does impeachment automatically result in the removal of the president from office?
No. If a majority of members in the House of Representatives votes to impeach the president, the Senate will try the president on charges of impeachment. The president will be removed from office only if he is convicted on these charges by a 2/3 vote in Senate.
Describe the line of presidential succession.
If the president dies, resigns, is temporarily disabled, or is removed from office, the vice president succeeds to the presidency. If the vice president is unable to assume this office, the speaker of the house succeeds. If the speaker of the house cannot take office, the line of succession goes down to the president pro tempore of the Senate followed by the members of the Cabinet in the order that their departments were created.
What are basic constitutional sources of presidential power?
Article 2 lists most of the powers of the president. authority to serve as commander in chief, to grant reprieves and pardons, to make treaties, and to appoint ambassadors, federal judges, and other government officials with the advice and consent of the Senate. The president also possesses inherent powers derived from historical practice and implicit in the provisions of Article 2, as well as statutory powers granted through congressional legislation.
Explain the difference between a pocket veto and a line-item veto.
A pocket veto occurs when a president fails to sign a bill and Congress adjourns within ten days of that bill's passage. A line-item veto describes the presidential veto of specific provisions within a larger piece of legislation. In 1998, the Suprem Court struck down a congressional law granting the president authority to exercise the line-item veto.
Does a presidential veto absolutely prevent a piece of legislation from becoming law?
No. Congress may override a presidential veto with a 2/3 roll call vote in each house.
What is the difference between the president's Cabinet and his or her "kitchen cabinet"?
The Cabinet is the formal presidential advisory group that consists of the heads of the 13 departments within the executive branch. The term "kitchen cabinet" refers to the informal group of presidential advisors drawn from both within and outside government.
Briefly describe the position of chief of staff.
The chief of staff is the head of the White House Office. He or she serves as one of the president's primary advisors.
List and provide an example of the primary types of organizations that make up the federal bureaucracy.
the organizations include cabinet departments, independent executive agencies, and independent regulatory commissions. The Department of State is an example of a cabinet department. The Environmental Protection agency is an example of an independent executive agency. The federal reserve board is an example of an independent regulatory commission.
What role does Congress have in defining the authority of the federal bureaucracy?
The Senate has constitutional authority to give its advice and consent to presidential cabinet appointments. Also, Congress as a whole can pass enabling legislation that creates federal agencies and defines their purposes and powers. finally, the legislative branch can authorize and appropriate funds to federal agencies and thereby overseee the federal bureaucracy.