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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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This group was opposed to a strong central government; they saw undemocratic tendencies in the Constitution and insisted on the inclusion of the Bill of Rights
This group included leaders such as Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and Patrick Henry.
This is the system embdied in the Constitution through which the power of each branch of goernment is limited by the other.
checks and balances
The President's power to veto legislation and Congress's powerto override that veto are examples.
This states that the Constitution laws passed by Congress, and treaties entered into by the U.S. are superior to state laws.
The Supremacy Clause
Also known as Article VI of the Constitution.
This Amendment to the Constiution allows for freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly.
1st Amendment
This view states that the Constitution is bradly interpreted, recognizing that it could not possible anticipate all future developments.
Loose Constructionist
This view relies on the idea of implied powers and the "necessary and proper" clause.
This is the structure of the government provided for in the Constitution where authority is divided between the execuative, legaslative, and judicial branches.
Separation of Powers
This idea comes from Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws.
Ratified in 1781, this was the U.S.'s first constitution, providing a framework for national government.
The Articles of Confederation
This sharply limited central authority by denying the national government any taxation or coercive power.
This is the collective name for four laws passed in 1798 designed to supress criticism of the federal government and to curb liberties of foreigners living in the U.S.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These were penned to mobilize opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts, which these argued were unconstitutional.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
These were penned by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
These were the group of leaders who favored replacing the Articles of Confederation with a stronger national government.
An uncompromising belief in these, the fundemental rights over whih the government could exercise no control, energized the popular demand for a formal bill of rights in 1791.
Natural Rights
The New Jersey Plan called for what?
called for a strong national government withone house of Congress in which all states would have equal representation.
Remember,New Jersey is a relaivley small state.
This event became the first real test of the federal governments prerogatives and law enforcement power, including the president's right to command the use of state militias.
The Whiskey Rebellion
these disturbances in 1794 were aimed against the enforcement of a U.S. federal law of 1791 imposing an excise tax on whiskey. The burden of the tax fell largely on western Pennsylvania, then one of the chief whiskey-producing regions of the country. The grain farmers, most of whom were also distillers, depended on whiskey for almost all their income, and they considered the law an attack on their liberty and economic well-being.
This treaty was negotiated in 1794 to resolve the outstanding differences between the United States and Great Britain. The agreement was intended both to settle long-standing differences between the U.S. and Great Britain and to secure American neutrality during the time of the French Revolution in Europe.
Jay's Treaty
Thoughthe British agreed to surrender fots on U.S. territory, the treaty faild to realize key diplomatic goals and provoked a storm of potest in America.
A diplomatic incident in which American peace commissioners sent to France in 1797 were insulted with bribe demands from their French counterparts
XYZ Affair
The incident heightened war fever against France.
This, the arbitrary seizure by a government or its agents of individuals or goods for public service. Until it was abandoned by democratic countries during the 19th century, the practice was condoned as a way of handling petty criminals, vagrants, and other undesirable elements of society, who were often forcibly abducted by “press gangs” for service in the army or navy.
Between 1790 and 1812 thousands of British sailors, including deserters from the Royal Navy, joined the prospering United States Merchant Marine. British ships frequently stopped American ships and impressed crew members, claiming that they were deserters from the Royal Navy. American outrage over these tactics was one of the causes of the War of 1812.
This treaty secured the following two provisions:Spain recognized U.S. borders at the Mississippi and the 31st parallel (the northern border of Florida, a Spanish possession)and Spain granted Americans the right to deposit goods for transshipment at New Orleans.
Pinckney's Treaty
Spain and GB were rivals. Spain was made nervous by the warming relationship between the U.S. and GB as evidenced by Kay's Treaty. They signed this treaty to create a positive relationship with the U.S. and to keep GB on their toes.
The 1789 law that created the Judicial Branch of the federal government. Among the things provided for in the Act:
- the number of members of the Supreme Court (6)
- the number of lower district courts (13)
- the idea that the Supreme Court can settle disputes between states
- the idea that a decision by the Supreme Court is final.
The Judiciary Act 1789
The powers specifically gien to Congress in the Consitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regualte foreign and interstae commerce, and declare war.
enumerated powers
This belief holds that the Constitution is narrowly interpreted to give the federal government only those powers specifically delegated to it.
Strict Constructionist
The opposite of a loose constructionist.