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203 Cards in this Set

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Appropriation of Art
Reemploying or rearranging borrowed or stolen "ready made" images from art & media sources. Intedned to expose & revise social mechanisms of image cannibalism. *critical strategy*
Third World Artist
Produce concious opposition to art of the ruling class
Race
Term used to mean culture --> unspecified groups defined by linguistic groups / belief systems / similar economic interests
1. Ideological construct
2. Objective condition
Ethonocentricism in the Arts
Quality transcends boundaries. Identifiable only by those in power??
Cultural Racism
Damaging b/c it attacks tastes, preferences, modes of self expression & self image. --> causes suppression & self rejection
Problem about writing about art
Tempting to fix gaze on famiiar vs. unfamiliar // neutral vs. exotic. Best to look in between; want to be percieved as subject rather than object
Ruling Class Artists
Create work which support the values of the ruling class culture, no matter what their color
Critical Theory of Race
a. It must apply to contemporary political relationships
b. It must apply to an increasingly global context.
c. It must apply across historical time
Instrumental Realism
Representational projects devoted to new techniues of social diagnosis and control --> categorization
Polygenesis
Theory that different races are due to multiple separate creations; each race = distinct species
Charles King Bird
Mostly portraits of Indian dignitaries. Man commisioned by gov't. *Titles are important* Wanted to caputre many distinct persons, but based on one person actually met
George Catlin
Along w/ King, created gallery in war dept in Bureau of Indian Affairs (gov't). First public museum: archives of American Indians. Worked mostly in the field (not studio). Art was ceremonial (spontaneous / sketchy) or portraits (very detailed, 3/4 view). Very modified to create image of noble savage --> very concerned w/ audience
Edward Curtis
Photographs; financed by JP Morgan (1907-1930): covered 30 tribes. Established current image of Native Americans: paid them to act/costume/pose; staged many ceremonies
->Posed so they seem the most different (out of context); sepia-soft-difuse
Freeman Henry Morris Murray (1916)
"Condition of being exploited / held down / enslaved in one form or another, are so common and so old that people, victims included, come to regard these conditions as natural and necessary and unavoidable"
Stuart Hall
"Black Diasporal Culture" = things that significant numbers of black people do (constructive, inventive, crafted, produced)
Ashcan School
The Ashcan School was a realist artistic movement that came into prominence in the United States in the early((monkry)) 20th century, best known for works capturing scenes of daily life in poor urban neighborhoods. The movement is most associated with a group known as "The Eight", whose members were Robert Henri, Arthur B. Davies, Maurice Prendergast, Ernest Lawson, William Glackens, Everett Shinn, John French Sloan, and George Luks. The Eight exhibited as a group for the first and only time at the Macbeth Gallery in 1908, but they are still remembered as a group, despite the fact that their work was very diverse in terms of style and subject matter.

The Ashcan School was not an organized group, but rather the term was applied later to a group of artists, including Henri, Glackens, Shinn, Sloan, Luks, George Bellows (a Henri student), and others, who painted urban subject matter, primarily New York's poorer neighborhoods. It was this frequent, though not total, focus on poverty that prompted critics to consider them the fringe of 'modern' art.
Bellows, Both Members of this Club (1909)
.
Bellows, Stag at Sharkey's, 1909
.
Douglas, Aspects of Negro Life, no.3, 1934
.
Douglas, Aspects of Negro Life, no.2, 1934
.
Douglas, Harriet Tubman, 1931
.
Douglas, Illustration for Crisis, 1925
.
Douglas, Illustration for Opportunity, 1926
.
Duchamp, Fountain, 1917
.
Fuller,Ethiopia,1921
.
Hine, Immgrants Seeking their Luggage, Elis Island, 1905
.
Hine, Italian Workers, 1907
.
Henry Buehman (1851-1912)

Maricopa Squaw, 1880
.
Henry Buehman (1851-1912)

Pima Beauty, 1890
.
George Catlin (1796-1872)

Blackfoot, 1832
.
George Catlin (1796-1872)

Fast Dancer, a Warrior, 1843
.
George Catlin (1796-1872)

Four Bears, 1832
.
George Catlin (1796-1872)

Nakoda, 1832
.
George Catlin (1796-1872)

Otoe, Jiwere-Nutachi, 1832
.
George Catlin (1796-1872)

La-Do-Ka-A, Buffalo Bull, 1832
.
Edward Curtis (1868-1952)

From The North American Indian Series, 1900-1930
.
Edward Curtis (1868-1952)

From The North American Indian Series, 1900-1930
.
Edward Curtis (1868-1952)

From The North American Indian Series, 1900-1930
.
Edward Curtis (1868-1952)

From The North American Indian Series, 1900-1930
.
Edward Curtis (1868-1952)

From The North American Indian Series, 1900-1930
.
"Hottentot Venus" - popular image
.
"Hottentot Venus" - popular image
.
Nathaniel Jocelyn (1796-1881)

Cinque, 1839
.
Charles Bird King (1785-1862)

Black Hawk, 1821
.
Charles Bird King (1785-1862)

Young Omaha, 1822
.
Charles Bird King (1785-1862)

Ma-Has, Chief of the Iowas, 1824
.
John Lewis Krimmel (1786-1821)

Quilting Frolic, 1813
.
Harriet Powers (1837-1910)

Bible Quilt, c. 1886
.
Harriet Powers (1837-1910)

Bible Quilt, c. 1886
.
William Soule (1836-1908)

Wichita Woman, 1867
.
Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937)

Annunciation, 1898
.
Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937)

Seascape, 1876-79
.
Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937)

Banjo Lesson, 1893
.
Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937)

Daniel in the Lion's Den, 1896
.
Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937)

Nicodemus Visiting Christ, 1899
.
Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937)

Resurrection of Lazarus, 1896
.
Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937)

Thankful Poor, 1895
.
John Vanderlyn (1775-1852)

The Murder of Jane McCrea, 1803-4
.
Joseph Zealy (1812-1893)

Slave Daguerreotypes for Louis Aggassiz, 1850
.
Robert Henri (1865-1929)

Irish Girl, 1908
.
Robert Henri (1865-1929):

Laughing Child, 1907
.
Robert Henri (1865-1929)

New York, 1905
.
Robert Henri (1865-1929)

Eva Green, 1907
.
Lewis Hine (1874-1940)

Child in Carolina Cotton Mill, 1907
.
Lewis Hine (1874-1940)

Italian Mother, 1889
.
Jacob Riis (1849-1914)

Five Cent Lodging, Bayard Street, 1889
.
John Sloan (1871-1951)

Backyards, Greenwich Village, 1914
.
John Sloan (1871-1951)

Hairdresser's Window, 1907
.
John Sloan (1871-1951)

Sunday, Women Drying Hair, 1912
.
Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946)

From the Window, 1891
.
Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946)

The Steerage, 1907
.
Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946)

The Street, 1896
.
Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946)

Winter, 1899
.
Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946):

The Terminal, 1892
.
Paul Strand (1890-1976)

The Keys, 1918
.
Paul Strand (1890-1976)

New York, 1915
.
Augusta Savage (1892-1962

Gamin, 1930
.
Augusta Savage (1892-1962)

The Harp, 1939
.
Augusta Savage (1892-1962)

The Harp, 1939
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

Beggars, 1939
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from The Harriet Tubman Series, 1939-40
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from The Harriet Tubman Series, 1939-40
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

Interior Scene, 1936
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000):

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

3: In every town Negroes were leaving by the hundreds to go North and enter into Northern industry
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

10: They were very poor
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

11: In many places, because of the war, food had doubled in price
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

14: Among the social conditions that existed which was partly the cause of the migration was the injustice done to the Negroes in the court
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

15: Another cause was lynching. It was found that where there had been lynching, the people who were reluctant to leave at first left immediately after this
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

1: During the World War there was a great migration North by Southern Negroes
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from The Frederick Douglass Series, 1938-39
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from The Frederick Douglass Series, 1938-39
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from The Frederick Douglass Series, 1938-39
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

19: There had always been discrimination
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

20: In many of the communities the Negro press was read continually because of its attitude and its encouragement of the movement
.
Palmer Hayden (1893-1973)

Fetish and Flowers, 1926
.
Palmer Hayden (1893-1973)

Midsummer Night in Harlem, 1936
.
Richmond Barthe (1901-1989)

African Dancer, 1933
.
Richmond Barthe (1901-1989)

Fera Banga, 1935
.
Richmond Barthe (1901-1989)

Josephine Baker, 1930s
.
Sargent Johnson (1887-1967)

Forever Free, 1935
.
Sargent Johnson (1887-1967)

Negro Woman or Mask, 1933
.
James Van Der Zee (1886-1983)

Couple with a Cadillac, 1932
.
James Van Der Zee (1886-1983):

Studio Portrait
.
Sara Bartman
African American woman who was toted on display (circus etc) b/c of her unusual anatomy
-> disease that caused her to have a large bottom.
-> used to say that "black women are sexually deviant"; sexual animal or mammy - no middle
Krimell
"quilting frolic of 1819" -> one of the first paintings to include black stereotype
American Anti-Slavery Society
(1833)
* fought images in arts
* tried to get artists to produce different types of black ex: "Cinque" -- black man as a Roman (1839)
Light and Shadow
Draws attention to blackness.
Can also create racial ambiguity.
Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937)
Worked mosty in France -> First American artist to become famous.

* Studied at PA Academy of Art (which was free at the time)
* Duality of background -> refused to be characterized as an "American Artist"
* Studied in France -- said he didn't feel racism there.
* In America, work relegated to Negro building.

* Painted religious metaphor
* Created deliberate ambiguity -> defy race? Racial democracy?
Harriette Powers
* Woman, born slave, quilter (Bible Quilts 1 & 2)

* Didn't want to sell, only did when financially troubled.

* Influenced by Fon people (tribe in Benin).
* Ambigious racial identity -> different colors for same people, different colors in different panals.

-- Disolves traditional encoding (binary opposition)
"New Negro"
Englightened, politically astute African American
* term from Booker T. Washington

* Only meaningful in relation to "Old Negro"? -> look at black vernacular and victorian morals.
Winold Reiss
White German. Chosen by Alain Locke & others to portray Langston Hughes.
-> "modern black personna"
* ironic? Maybe - also was distanced from American racism.
* encouraged others to explore their "blackness"
Harmon Foundation
NY based philanthropic organization.
* Principal patron for many African American artists.
* its end (coinciding w/ shift in US arts partronism to Govt's Public Works Project) essentially ended "New Negro" movement. -- 1938
Why Harlem?
1. Large & growing black population
1925 - 175k
1930 - 200k

2. NAACP, National Urban League, Universal Negro Improvement Assoc.

3. Also many churches, orgs, frats, etc. involved.
Pan-African Movement (1900)
Reaction agains imperialism & colonialism
- Search for communities among blacks around world (US/Africa/Europe)
- Never clearly defined
- Often represented as vision/dream
- Grew out of dispair
- Participated in modernity (politis/access/art).
- Most Pan-Africans: elite & well-educated; tried to bring others in.
W.E.B. DuBois
Leader of Pan-African Movement.
- "The Conservation of Race"
- 1st Af Am to receive degree from Harvard
- Leader & Activist
- Claimed that ppl of African decent should work and fight together.

opp = Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington
- "Accomodator" - more conservative
- Promoted moderation & cooperation
- Change could only be achieved by quiet hard work
Pan African Conference (1900 - London)
* Acquired organized form
* DuBois (1919-1925) - leader
Johnson
Celebrated unique black -> don't adopt western culture
* Said blacks should reclaim minstral shows; gave new meaning to "reappropriation"
Meta Warrick Fuller
* Well-educated at PA academy & in France
- Reviewed by Rodin
- Expressive, although not particularly original (based on Euro, not Black)
- gestural ex: Ethiopia Awak.
- bible & mythology references

DuBois-> suggested she focus more on black issues; introduced her to political movement
Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946)
Photographer - Founded Camera Club

* Began: traditional; pictographic rep. of city (painterly focus)
Later: abstract/conceptual. Used instinct to caputre modern world, not formality

* movement & forward motion
* social issues, esp. class
* geometric use of lines to divide groups
* sharp blacks/whites

* later works devoid of human element
Paul Strand (1890-1976)
* Key elements of capitalism (ex Wall Street)
* Integration of human and machine
* Socialist
Jacob Reiss (1849-1914)
Photographer -> surpised people, doesn't control lighting

* Hired by police: barged into peoples homes to take candid photos

* No permission: "real" (Five Cent Lodging)

* Show picture of American social issues
Lewis Hine (1874-1940)
* Camera as instrument of social reform
* Many imm. on Elis island -> raised $ for imm.
* introduced legislation
Generally Desired by Modernists:
(according to Wesley Dow, 1916)
1. Freedom from the restraint of critics

*2. Rejection of most of traditional ideas of art; even to the denial that beauty is worht seeking

3. Interest in the expression of each individual

4. Less attention to the subject, more to form.
* Line, mass, color have pure aesthetic value whether they represent something or not

5. Convincing us that there are limitless fields yet unrevieled by art.

6. New expression by color, not by te color of things, but new relationships b/w colors

7. Attempting new types of design.

* recognized but opposed by Dow
Marius de Zayas (1916)
African Negro Art: Its Influence on Modern Art

* Mexican critic & characaturist
* gathered pseudo-scientific support for views that Africans (who were at earliest state of hum. devel.) were incapable of creating naturalist represenations in art.

-> argued that western "civilized" men were inherantly suprior to Af.
-> Book credits Negro art w/ awakening Euros to abstraction
Robert J. Coady (1916)
American Art: The Soil

* Journal: break down distinctions b/w high art and popular culture
* Child's drawings, industrial photos, feature articles about dressmaking, etc.
"Usable Past" - V.W. Brooks (1918)
Hope that the creative minds of Americans would find somethign of value in the past to propel them towards the future
-> looked towards aret to keep idealism and national redemption
Field
Proposed ideas of CULTURAL NATIONALISM: artists need to encourage pride of counry through cultural expression
Strength of Colonial Past:
* did not mean remembering difficult aspects of Am history (slavery, genocide, ethnic prej.) -> all romanticized America

* Look (for many) to art and artifacts of ordinary "folk" --> lure of the local.
Thomas Hart Benton (1928)
"My American Epic in Paint"
* Rejected Euro modernism -> sought to establish "American Art" based on history & customs of Anglo Americans.

"Painting was an abstraction from life & not a representatio in the old sense of the word..."
Marsden Hartley (1921)
"American Values in Painting" & "Modern Art in America"

* Born in ME, Poet & Essayist --> modern artist

* Real art of America = gives reference to the locale which inspired it ~ paintings gave context of place
John Singer Sargent
* Mrs Joshua Montgomery (1882)
& The Daughters of Edward Boit (1899)

* Mostly portraits and landscapes
Modernism
Modernism as a tendency emerged in the mid-19th century, particularly in Paris, France, and was rooted in the idea that "traditional" forms of art, literature, social organization and daily life had become outdated, and that it was therefore essential to sweep them aside. In this it drew on previous revolutionary movements, including liberalism and communism. Modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was "holding back" progress, and replacing it with new, and therefore better, ways of reaching the same end. In essence, the modernist movement argued that the new realities of the industrial and mechanized age were permanent and imminent, and that people should adapt their world view to accept that what was new was also good and beautiful.
Frida Kahlo (1907–1954)
Mexican painter of the indigenous culture of her country in a style combining Realism, Symbolism and Surrealism, an active communist supporter, and wife of the Mexican muralist and cubist painter Diego Rivera.

Kahlo was noted for her unconventional appearance, declining to remove her facial hair (she had a small mustache and unibrow which she exaggerated in self portraits), and for her flamboyantly styled clothing, drawn largely from traditional Mexican dress.
Georgia Totto O'Keeffe (1887—1986)
She is chiefly known for paintings in which she synthesizes abstraction and representation in paintings of flowers, rocks, shells, animal bones and landscapes. Her paintings present crisply contoured forms that are replete with subtle tonal transitions of varying colors, and she often transformed her subject matter into powerful abstract images.
Frans Hals (1580–1666)
Hals is best known for his portraits, mainly of wealthy citizens. He also painted large group portraits, many of which showed civil guards. He was a Baroque painter who practiced an intimate realism with a radically free approach. His pictures illustrate the various strata of society; banquets or meetings of officers, sharpshooters, guildsmen, admirals, generals, burgomasters, merchants, lawyers, and clerks, itinerant players and singers, gentlefolk, fishwives and tavern heroes.

In group portraits, such as the Archers of St. Hadrian, Hals captures each character in a different manner. The faces are not idealized and are clearly distinguishable, with their personalities revealed in a variety of poses and facial expressions.
John Sloan (1871-1951)
* Painted from windows - voyer
* Distant observer - never too close
* Realities of working class - regular scenes
* Not interested in respectability -> redefined images of women
George Bellows (1882-1925)
* American painter, known for his bold depictions of urban life in NYC.
* Painted Men - redefined masculinity
* Hoped to masculinize Am culture ~ ppl thought Americans were becomng too fem. (ex: Guilded Age)
DuChamp (1887-1972)
"The creative act is not performed by the artist alone; the spectator brings the work in contact with the external world by deciphering and interpreting its inner qualifications and thus adds his contribution to the creative act."

* Duchamp's early art works align with Post-Impressionist styles. He experimented with classical techniques and subjects, as well as, Cubism and Fauvism.

* Duchamp developed the term "readymade" in 1915 to refer to found objects chosen by the artist as art. Duchamp assembled the first readymade, a bicycle wheel mounted on a stool titled Bicycle Wheel (1913), the same time as his Nude Descending A Staircase was attracting the attention of critics at the International Exhibition of Modern Art. Bottle Rack (1914), a bottle drying rack signed by Duchamp, is considered to be the first "pure" readymade. Prelude to a Broken Arm (Nov. 1915), a snow shovel, followed soon after. His Fountain, a urinal which he signed with the pseudonym "R. Mutt", shocked the art world in 1917. The piece was rejected when he submitted it to the unjuried 1917 Society of Independent Artists.
Jazz Age (1920s)
Defined as wedge of time b/w end of WW1 (Nov 1918) and stock market crash (Oct 1929)

* new, experimental, modern
* mechanization -> efficiency & comfort
* public embrace of tech.- cars, air travel, phone—as well as new modernist trends in social behavior, the arts, and culture.
* Central developments included Art Deco design and architecture.
* A great theme of the age was individualism and a greater emphasis on the pursuit of pleasure and enjoyment in the wake of the misery, destruction and perceived hypocrisy and waste of WWI and pre-war values.
Lois Lozowick
* One of the first artists to visit Soviet Russia:
- returned w/ enthusiasm for Russian avant garde
- praised Russian constructivists:

"Go for instruction to science & borrow an example from industry. Like science, they aim at precision, order, organization; like industry, they deal w/ concrete materials: paper, wood, iron, glass"
Machine Age Art
Serve the selling of consumer goods
- advertising! appeal to the public's desire for status and glamour.
Cultural Primitivism
Search for "authentic"

"The belief of men living in a relatiely highly evolved & complex cultural condition that a life far simpler & less sophisticated in some or all respects is a more desirable life"
-> noble savage
-> constructs of pristene landscapes
*natural, spontaneous, intuitive
Alain Locke (1886-1954)
African American educator, writer, and philosopher; chief interpreter of the Harlem Renaissance.

* Blacks now whould look at African roots -> color & texture
* African heritage should dictate black art now.

Locke stimulated and guided artistic activities and promoted the recognition and respect of blacks by the total American community. Having studied African culture and traced its influences upon Western civilization, he urged black painters, sculptors, and musicians to look to African sources for identity and to discover materials and techniques for their work. He encouraged black authors to seek subjects in black life and to set high artistic standards for themselves. He familiarized American readers with the Harlem Renaissance by editing a special Harlem issue for Survey Graphic (March 1925), which he expanded into The New Negro (1925), an anthology of fiction, poetry, drama, and essays.
Fredrick Douglas (1818-1895)
* Born a slave in Nebraska -> NYC
* Designed & "classical" -> later: murals
Murals of Fredrick Douglas
1. Tribal African Roots; Dancing; Egyptian Roots

2. Slavery -> emancipation; cotton picking w/preacher still very much about African history; tribal colors; trees; jungle; no faces, limited palette

3. Image of Jazz: "idol to deep south"; still images of slavery & chains & workload; concetric circles in center of image: musical animate, rhythm. Mixute of city (industry) & mountain (nature/agriculture)
Sargent Claud Johnson (1933)
"Forever Free"
Ceramic Artist: CA -> Harlem
* Funded by Harlem Foundat'n
* High polished / glazed -> modeled after mexican art
* Stylized in folk tradition
* Empowered
Richmond Barthe (1901-1989)
* Interested in dance -> examine body/movement/music
* Introduced physical/sensual -> used to be only "primative"
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)
* First African American entirely educated by black community
* Family part of great migration (Atlantic City -> Harlem)
* Trained by Augusta Savage & Douglas
* Work depicts life in Harlem, pieces about H. Tubman, Haitan Revolution, etc
* Refused to paint only joyous aspects: disapproved that Harlem Ren. didn't portray bad side.
* In a dialogue w/ Euro - but his own direction = narrative
Augusta Savage (1892)
WPA activist & sculptor
* 1939 - "The Harp" - at World Fair
* Work reflects Af Am culture
* First director of Harlem Comm Arts Center
Jacob Lawrence Narratives
30+ pannels (some as many as 60) -> High horizen = underscore condition, loss of hope for freedom
-> Effects of slavery on psychology of people
-> Painted w/ tempura: gestural brush strokes
Difference between Lawrence & Douglas
1. More about sequence
2. Painful, distraught
3. More realistic
4. Multifaceted vision of African American figures
Women at the time of the WPA
* said they felt that they were treated equally
⇒ still had to answer to men; could be fired at any time - constantly looking for approval
⇒ less room for women's revolutionary work

* subject matter = masculine
⇒ use of nudity: reserved b/c it was fetishized by men
* presence of women was largley symbolic
Mexican Revolution
1911 - 1917
Mexican Muralists in Mexico
Harsh critique against country
⇒ spread Marxist thought
Mexican Muralists in the USA
* Invited to USA mostly by universities -- then started working for capitalism

⇒ expected to criticize US government, but instead were a lot more tame; many murals did not even reference politics or workers struggles
Diego Rivera
(1886-1957)

Detroit Industry, 1932-33
.
Diego Rivera
(186-1957)

Detroit Industry, 1932-33
.
Diego Rivera
(186-1957)

Detroit Industry, 1932-33
.
Diego Rivera
(186-1957)

Detroit Industry, 1932-33
.
Dorothea Lange
(1895-1965)

Migrant Mother, 1936
.
Dorothea Lange
(1895-1965)

White Angel Bread Line, 1936
.
Grant Wood
(1892-1945)

American Gothic, 1930
.
Grant Wood
(1892-1945)

Fall Plowing, 1931
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

#48: Housing for the Negro was a very difficult problem
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

#49: They also found discrimination in the North although it was much different from that which they had known in the South
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000)

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

#50: Race riots were very numerous all over the North because of the antagonism between the Negro and white workers. Many of these riots occurred because the Negro was used as a strike breaker in many of the Northern industries
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000):

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

#57: The female worker was one of the last groups to leave the South
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000):

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

#58: In the North the Negro had better educational facilities
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000):

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

#59: In the North the Negro had freedom to vote
.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000):

from the Migration of the Negro series, 1940-41

#60: And the migrants kept coming
.
Margaret Bourke-White
(1904-1971)

African American Flood Victims waiting for food, Louisville, Kentucky, 1930
.
Thomas Hart Benton
(1889-1975)

America Today, 1930 1(4)
.
Thomas Hart Benton
(1889-1975)

America Today, 1930 2(4)
.
Thomas Hart Benton
(1889-1975)

America Today, 1930 3(4)
.
Thomas Hart Benton
(1889-1975)

America Today, 1930 4(4)
.
Walker Evans
(1903-1975)

Elie Mae Burroughs, Alabama, 1936
.
Walker Evans
(1903-1975)

Floyd Burroughs and Family, Alabama, 1936
.
Walker Evans
(1903-1975)

Miner’s Home, West Virginia, 1935
.
José Clemente Orozco
(1883-1949)
* Mexican social realist painter
* bold murals of human vs. mechanine
* leader of Mexican revolution w/ Rivera, but less optimistic: did not glorify movement
José Clemente Orozco's paintings
Prometheus (1930) - Pomona College
American Civilization (1932) - Dartmouth College
Georgia O'Keeffe's Paintings
(1887-1986)
Abstraction (1917)
Music: Pink and Blue (1919)
Black Iris (1926)
Black Petunias and White Morning Glory II (1926)
The White Flower (1931)
Dark Abstraction (1924)
Cow's Skull with Calico Roses (1931)
From the Faraway Nearby (1937)
Ranchos Curch (1939)
Red Hills and Bones (1941)
Imogen Cunningham
(1883-1976)
* American photographer
* Best known for botanical photos, aso industrial landscapes, and later human hands
* Worked w/ Edward Curtis
* Later employed by Vanity Fair
* In 1940s, did documentary street photography
Mexican Muralists in the USA
* Started working for capitalists (esp Rockerfeller): expected to critique American politics, instead chose to avoid politics in work
⇉ less political, more "humanist"
Diego Rivera
(1886-1957)
1929 ⇉ expelled from Mexico: Billionaire Artist
Diego Rivera's Allegory of California (at the SF stock exchange) - 1930-31
⇉ woman based on popular tennis player; image based on California beauty. Shows hard work but not strife. No hint of critique of system in which workers work; celebrating worker - not commenting on reality of worker
Diego Rivera's Building of the City (California Art Institute) - 1931
Again, criticized for idealizing workers and not representing true climate
Diego Rivera's Man on the Crossroads Looking with Hope and High VIsion to the Crossing of a New and Better Future (Rockefeller Center, Detroit) - 1932
destroyed because Rivera included a picture of Lenin which he refused to paint over. Later, he used sketches to recreate fresca in Mexico City
Georgia O'Keeffe, Abstraction, 1917
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Alfaro Siqueiros, Tropical America, 1932
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Georgia O'Keeffe, Black Iris, 1926
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Georgia O'Keeffe, Black Petunias and White Morning Glory II, 1926
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Georgia O'Keeffe, Cow's Skull with Calico Roses, 1931
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Georgia O'Keeffe, From the Faraway Nearby, 1937
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Georgia O'Keeffe, Music - Blue and Pink, 1919
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Georgia O'Keeffe, Ranchos Church, 1929
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Georgia O'Keeffe, White Flower, 1931
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Orozco, American Civilization, 1932
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Orozco, American Civilization 2, 1932
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Orozco, Prometheus, Pomona, 1930
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Diego Rivera - Allegory of California, Stock Exchange, 1930
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Diego Rivera - Allegory of California, Stock Exchange, 1930
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Diego Rivera - Man on the Crossroads, Rockefeller Center, 1932
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