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97 Cards in this Set

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vernacular music
means they existed as folk or traditional music played in communities as a part of everyday life
griot
master musicians serves sa storyteller, tribal historian, and entertainer; style-half-sung, half-spoken delivery
kora
21-string lute/ drum
heterogeneous sound ideal
consisting of many different, contrasting elements
call and response
musical statement by a singer or instrumentalist followed by a response from other vocalists or instruments
african vocal performance styles unique performances
invovle guttural effects such as screams, moans, and shouts and lyric improvisation
rhythmization
using vocal sounds for rhythmic purposes
blues notes
flatted third, fifth, and seventh of a major scale
groove
guilt by playing several highly rhythmic parts simultaneously creating a momentary feeling of resolution when multiple parts arrive on the same beat
pentatonic scale
five-note scale
microtone
note that falls b/t two notes on the Western chromatic 12-notes scale
ambiguous mode
one cannot tell if a tune is written in a major or a minor key
membranophones
came in every shapen and size were made from animal skins stretched over hollowed logs and played with fingers, palms, or crooked sticks
idiophones
instruments such as bells, gongs, shakers, rattles, thumb pianos, and xylophones that were made of materials that had their own unique sound.
aerophones
appeared less in African music, through peple played horns and trumpets made of elephant tusks and animal horns
chordophones
includes fiddles, harps, lyres, lutes, and zithers
patting juba
body drumming-striking the knees, shoulders, or other body parts with the hands to produce a rhythmic sound.
musicianers
african slaves who played music professional
lining out
leaders sang one line at a time to the congregation who repeats the newly learned material in a call and response format
rign shout
shufflign circular dance of chanting and hand clapping that often transported participants into an escastic trance
minstrelsy
first indigenous american theatrical and poular music genre
blackface
makeup style in which the face was darkened with burn cork and exaggerated faciatl feautres such as large lips and beig eyes wer drawn
jim crow
a disabled black stable hand who moved with a shuffle-changed the words in order to "disparage the black mand and his life style"
coon
became popularized in a song w hose melody resembled that of "Turkey in the Straw"
ethiopisan delineators
performers spoike and sang in poor imitations of black english dialect
minstrel music served to express
nostalgia for an imagined "simpler" rural life amid early industrialization or to discuss "forbidden" topics like race, class, sex, money, and violence
songsters
played instruments and sang an eclectic and multicultural repertorie with european and african sources that included comic songs, social songs, ballads, minstrel songs, and eventually the blues
W.C. Handy
-discovered the blues
formally trained musicisna from a middle-class background who was working as trumpeter/bandleader for mahhara's minstrels in the delta
TOBA
white-woend theater owners booking association
classic blues
sophisticated and distinctively urban flavor with accompaniments by early jazz masters such as trumpeter Loui Armstrong
Gerture "Ma" Rainey
mother of the blues
bessie smith
empress of the blues
blind lemon jefferson
made one of the firust successful rural blunes recordings "black snake moan"
-music was so copmlex that you had a really hard dimte dancing to it.
charley patton
father of the delta blues; not af. am--> was native american and white.
-played guitar on his head, behid back, all diff. ways, taps his own guitar
-open g tuning
Son House
pivotal figure in the evolution of rural blues
Robert Johnson
the most famous of the rural blues artists, with a rich lore surrounding his name
commodification
takes place when a culturl phenomenon (a song, a story, a picture, even an artist) is turned into a commodity and marketed
urban blues
characterized by the coordinated use of guitar, piano, and sometimes a full rhythm section in an ensemble setting, plyaing a consisten, often up-tempo rhythm
memphis minnie
early innovator on the electric guitar
pickup
device made by wrappming a coil of wire around a magnet. coil was placed under metal guitar strings and their mvmt. created an electric signal that was enhanced by an amplified and hear through a speaker
electric blues
began in the 1940s used amplififed, sometimes distored instrumental sounds of the guitar and harmonica in an ensemble setting
T-bones walker
one of the first electirc bluesman, forged the connection b/t the older acoustic blues and the new electric sounds successfully blending the delta and texas blues
ragtime
piano-based music in which musicians mixed complex syncopated-rhythms with traditional European marches, parlor songs, and light classical music in a style called "ragging"
habanera
cuban dance rhythm populr in the US in the early 1870s
scott joplin
ragtime's greatest innovator-was one of the many musicians whose attendance at the fair shpaed their music
player piano
called the pianola was the first mechanism for recording and reproducing music with good fidelity
creoles
often wel-educated financiall y successful and creole musicians generally received training in the european classical traidition
wind bands
consisting of brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments were poular in New Orleans
second line
young musician wannabes carrying the instrument cases of band members
vibrato
sligh and rapid variationins in pitch
front line
usualy cornet or trumpet, etc.
collective improvisation
practice derived from African music-severla musicians would simultaneously improvise
jazz standards
the fundametnal repertoire of many jazz musicians
Louis Armstrong
shaped the direction of jazz as a unique expression of American culture
cutting contests
competitions in which rival musicians challenge one another's prowess
stride piano
style played in harlem in the late1920s and early 1930s served as a bridge b/t ragtime and jazz
jungle music
mix of growling muted brass, unusual blends of saxophone and clarinet lines, and drivign rhythms
big band format
3 or 4 trumpets, 2 to 4 trombones, 3-5 saxophones, most saxophones doubling on clarinet
arranger
write individual parts for the instruments transforming often simple compositions into dramtic, sinwging
sweet band
smooth musical formula that featured catchy melodies and riffs with easily identifiable hooks and that downplayed improvisation in favor of a smooth, well-blended saxophone section that meshed with a warm brass sround
riff
short melodic phrase stated in forceful terms
jam session
another signature elemn of kansas city jazz
concept albums
recorded works with a unifying aristic theme-and the artists's interpretations of the songs cemented their status as jazz standards
pleasure gardnes
private parks, fruit trees, etc.
parlor songs
spoke of life, home, hearth, and family prevailed in 19th centruy
riff
a repeated musical phrase that immediatly identifies the song
hook
usually a vocal pharse that is unforgettable
groove
the kind of rhythm the piece has
timbre
a unique vocal qulaity immediatly identifiable
microtones
microtones are notes that fall b/t even a sharp and a flat; barely percetable changes in tone that add a specirific dimension to the music, especially in the blues
expression of minstrelsy
begun as a form of working class white youth express their affinity with Af-Am. cultural forms as a means of recognizing their own marginal status; echoed in wuite culture as a fasicination with the "Exotic" savage, and would espeically take hold during the Beat generation
the outsider
idea of white men parodying or imitaigin blacks let white admit taht Af-Am. had trits that they not nly admired, but coveted. ; actually combined white racism with the beg. of Af-Am incfluence on popular culture
george washington dixon
firste white as black face
thomas dartmouth rice
Jimcrow and cake walking (how Af. Am dance of making fun of white dance)
tin pan alley
rise in the music business with publishing firms competing for "hits"; NYC.
Vaudeville
popular theatrical form, replacing minstrel shows and used to popularize Tin Pan alley songs
ragtime craze
increased invovlement of Af. Am.
"rag"-slang to shift accents.
blues
-emeged from deep south from Missiipii to TX, from field hollers and calls, etc.
country blues' names
rural blues, down-homme blues, folk blues
regional blues styles
teax-repetitive beat, delta(vocally inspired and harsh), piedmont(ragtime influence and 3rd hand piano) (each have own unique riff format)
original dixiieland band
help started the "jazz age"
king of jazz
paul whiteman --claimed he made an "honest woman out of jazz"->need civilizng by whites, whitewashed the history. did though popularize jazz.
willima bilings
america's first professional composer. ->founded church choirs, introduced dance rhythms into church music
stride piano
major component of jazz music-moving left-hand base against improve right hand
earl "fatha" hines
made final transition to jazz; no more rag time; still has segmentations, notalot of improvisiations,
art tatum
launches syncopation-impressionistic, totally out of time w/ rest of song
duke ellington-cotton club orchestra
developed jungle music-celebrating african rots-incorporates pentatoic scales (typical af. scales)
jewish population theathre
lots of jewish immigrants; high value on education and culture-comon for kids to have music lessons
marx brothers
jewish from NYC- descendants from vaudeville stars
steven foster
known as the "father of American music," was the pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of the 19th century. His songs, such as "Oh! Susanna", "Camptown Races", "My Old Kentucky Home", "Old Black Joe", "Beautiful Dreamer" and "Old Folks at Home" ("Swanee River") remain popular over 150 years after their composition.
francish hopkins
first known for secular-american popular music
reverse hegemony
when not dominnant culture is replicated in dominant culture
what cities radio was in
newark, pittsburgh, detroit
robert johnson
crossroad blues; sold his soul to the devil to play so well.
jazz
collective improvisation-earl hines
ragtime
am's first form of classical music-set/rigid musical structure
race records
early blues recordings