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58 Cards in this Set

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Chemicals involved in interspecific communication
Allelochemicals
Drug that decreases heart activity by affecting receptors of the sympathetic nervous system.
Beta-blocker
A toxic chemical produced by the Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus molds.
Aflatoxin
The amount of drug that is available to the target tissue after administration; this may not be 100% due to degradation or alteration before reaching the target tissue.
Bioavailability
Chemical alteration of an agent that occurs by virtue of the sojourn of the agent in a biological system. Pharmacodynamics involves the chemical effects of a drug on the body; ___ involves the chemical effect of the body on a drug. The product of ___ may be more not less biologically active or potent than the starting material.
Biotransformation
The movement of chemicals through biological organisms.
Biotranslocation
The chemically similar neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
Catecholamines
Compound that acts like epinephrine (adrenal hormone used as a heart stimulant) or norepinephrine (nitrogen containing neurotransmitter).
Adrenergic
A chemical compound with a structure similar to that of another but differing from it in respect to a certain component; it may have a similar or opposite action metabolically.
Analog (Analogue)
The maximum biological effect that can be induced in a tissue by a given drug, regardless of how large a dose is administered.
Ceiling
Movement or response of cells to chemicals.
Chemotaxis
The joint effect of 2 or more drugs such that the combined effect is less than the sum of the effects produced by each agent separately. The agonist is the agent producing the effect that is diminished by the administration of the antagonist.
Antagonism
Separation of chemical compounds.
Chromatography
Medicated solution used to bathe eyes.
Collyrium
A group of drugs similar to natural ___ hormones that are used predominantly in the treatment of inflammation and to suppress the immune system.
Corticosteroid
Toxic to all cells
Cytotoxic
Substance that has a toxic effect on certain cells, used against some tumors.
Cytotoxin
A somatic state that develops after chronic administration of certain drugs; this state is characterized by the necessity to continue administration of the drug in order to avoid the appearance of uncomfortable or dangerous (withdrawal) symptoms.
Dependence
Drug that lowers nervous or functional activity.
Depressant/ Sedative
The time required for a tablet to break up into granules of specified size (or smaller) under carefully specified test conditions.
Disintegration time
The time required for a given amount (or fraction) of drug to be released into solution from a solid dosage form.
Dissolution Time
The physical state in which a drug is dispensed for use.
Dosage Form
The quantity of drug, or dosage form, administered to a subject at a given time.
Dose
Substance that affects the structure or functional processes of an organsim, especially to prevent or treat diseases or relieve symptoms.
Drug
Median effective dose
ED50
Medication mixed with honey.
Electuary
The time it takes for the body to eliminate or break down half of a dose of a pharmacologic agent.
Elimination Half-Life
Substance that contains alcohol or glycerin, used as a solution for bitter or nauseating drugs.
Elixir
A way of coating a tablet or capsule to ensure that it does not dissolve in the stomach and so can reach the intestinal tract.
Enteric-coated
The biotransformation and or excretion of a drug by hepatic, including biliary, mechanisms following absorption of the drug from the gastrointestinal tract, before the drug gains access to the systemic circulation.
First pass effect
The property of a drug that determines the amount of biological effect produced per unit of drug-receptor complex formed.
Intrinsic Activity
A drug allowed by the FDA to be used in clinical trials but not approved for commercial marketing.
Investigational New Drug (IND)
Genetically engineered antibodies specific for one particular antigen.
Monoclonal
A drug prescribed for conditions other than those indicated on the label.
Off Label
A drug trial is "open" when doctors and participants know which drug is being administered.
Open trial
Medication available without a doctor's prescription.
OTC (Over the Counter)
Medicine that relieves symptoms but does not cure disease.
Palliative
A drug or medication manufactured and sold by a pharmacy.
Pharmaceutical
A trial that studies how the drug is absorbed by the body. People in one of these trials often have blood tests every few minutes or hours.
Pharmacokinetic Trial
An offical publication of drugs, in common use in a given country.
Pharmacopoeia
Preparation and dispensing of drugs; place where this is done.
Pharmacy
The first step in human testing of a drug. Designed to evaluate toxicity at different dose levels and takes place with a small number of participants.
Phase I Study
FDA drug-testing phase for effectiveness in humans. The stage at which drug effectiveness is established. Proceed only if Phase I studies show toxicity to be within acceptable levels. Usually involves 50-300 volunteers.
Phase II Study
FDA drug-testing phase for extensive clinical trials in humans. Expansion of Phase II study to 300-3,000 volunteers. Designed to back up information gathered in Phase I and II testing.
Phase III Study
Small ball or tablet of medicine to be swallowed whole; oral contraceptive.
Pill
Diminished secretion of saliva that causes an abnormally dry mouth especially as a drug reaction.
Xerostomia
A number (LD50/ ED50) which is a measure of the approximate "safety factor" for a drug; a drug with a high index can presumably be administered with greater safety than one with a low index. The ___ ___ is ordinarily calculated from data obtained from experiments with animals.
Therapeutic Index
A small disk made from compressed powders of one or more drugs, that is swallowed whole.
Tablet
A drug that affects the sympathetic nervous system.
Sympatholytic
Giving a drug by injecting it under the skin.
Subcutaneous
A secondary and usually adverse effect, as from a drug or other treatment.
Side Effect
The regulatory decision-making process, which may take into account not only the risk assessment information, but also nonscience factors such as cost, competing public needs, technical feasibility, and social values.
Risk Management
The relation between the risks and benefits of a given treatment or procedure.
Risk/ Benefit Ratio
The process for evaluating the probability of harm resulting from a given exposure to a hazardous substance. The 3 steps of a risk assessment are hazard identification; dose-response assessment; and risk characterization.
Risk Assessment
The likelihood that harm will result form exposure to a hazard.
Risk
A study in which patients with similar traits, such as extent of disease, are chosen or selected by chance to be placed in separate groups that are comparing different treatments.
Randomized Clinical Trial
Drug being studied to try to boost the effect of radiation therapy.
Radiosensitizer
Alkaloid drug used to treat malaria.
Quinine