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45 Cards in this Set

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What is the immune reactant for Type I HS?
IgE (123-EGG)
What is the immune reactant for Type II HS?
IgG (123-EGG)
What is the immune reactant for Type III HS?
IgG (123-EGG)
What is the immune reactant for Type IV HS?
TH1, TH2, CTL
What is the Ag in Type I HS?
soluble Ag
What is the Ag in Type II HS?
Cell- or matrix-associated Ag;
Cell-surface receptor
What is the Ag in Type III HS?
Soluble Ag
What is the Ag in Type IV HS?
Soluble Ag (TH1 + TH2);
Cell-associated Ag (CTL)
What are the HS types that recognize soluble Ag?
Types I, III, and IV (TH1 + TH2)
What is the effector mechanism of Type I HS?
mast cell activation
What is the effector mechanism of Type II HS?
Complement, FcR, and cells (phagocytes + NK cells)
What is the effector mechanism of Type III HS?
Complement, phagocytes
What is the effector mechanism of Type IV HS?
Macrophage activation (TH1)
Eosinophil activation (TH2)
Cytotoxicity (CTL)
What is an example of a Type I HS rxn?
systemic anaphylaxis
What is an example of a Type II HS rxn?
penicillin allergy (cell- or matrix-associated Ag)
Chronic urticaria (Ab against FCeR1a) (Cell surface receptor)
What is an example of a Type III HS rxn?
serum sickness
What is an example of a Type IV HS rxn?
contact dermatitis, tuberculin rxn (TH1)
chronic asthma (TH2)
contact dermatitis (CTL)
How rapid is the onset of Type I rxns?
occur w/in minutes of exposure to Ag
What is happening in Type I rxns?
Ags combine w/ IgE Abs bound to mast cells via FcR, causing mast cells to degranulate and release mediators (eg histamine)
What are the mediators associated with Type I response?
Histamine
Prostaglandins
Leukotrienes
What effects does histamine cause?
Histamine dilates and increases the permeability of blood vessels (edema, redness), increase mucus production (runny nose), cause smooth muscle contraction (bronchi)
What effects do prostaglandins cause?
Prostaglandins cause contraction of smooth muscle of respiratory system and increased mucus secretion.
What effects do leukotrienes cause?
Leukotrienes cause bronchial spasms.
What is an example of an enzyme released by mast cells upon activation?
tryptase
chymase
cathepsin G
carboxypeptidase
What is an example of a toxic mediator released by mast cells upon activation?
histamine
heparin
What is an example of a cytokine released by mast cells upon activation?
IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha
What is an example of a chemokine released by mast cells upon activation?
CCL3
What is an example of a lipid mediator released by mast cells upon activation?
Prostaglandins D2, E2
Leukotrienes B4, C4
PAF
What are the biological effects of the enzymes tryptase, chymase, cathepsin G, and carboxypeptidase released from mast cells upon activation?
These enzymes remodel tissue matrix
What are the biological effects of the toxic mediators histamine and heparin released from mast cells upon activation?
Toxic to parasites
Increase vascular permeability
Vasoconstriction
Bronchoconstriction
What are the biological effects of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 released from mast cells upon activation?
IL-4 and IL-13 stimulate and amplify TH2 cell response
What are the biological effects of the cytokines IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF released from mast cells upon activation?
IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF promote eosinophil production and activation
What are the biological effects of the cytokine TNF-alpha released from mast cells upon activation?
TNF-alpha promotes inflammation, stimulates cytokine production by many cell types, and activates endothelium
What are the biological effects of the chemokine CCL3 released from mast cells upon activation?
CCL3 attracts monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils
What are the biological effects of the lipid mediators prostaglandins and leukotrienes released from mast cells upon activation?
Prostaglandins and leukotrienes cause smooth muscle contraction, increase vascular permeability,, and stimulate mucus secretion
What are the biological effects of the lipid mediator PAF released from mast cells upon activation?
PAF attracts leukocytes, amplifies production of lipid mediators,and activates neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets
Mast cell activation and granule release affects... (3)
GI tract
Airways
Blood vessels
Mast cell activation/granule release effect on blood vessels...
↑ blood flow
↑permeability
Mast cell activation/granule release effect on airways...
↓ diameter
↑ mucus secretion
What are some common food allergens responsible for IgE-mediated allergic rxns?
tree nuts
peanuts
shellfish
milk
eggs
fish
What are possible responses to common food allergens that elicit IgE-mediated allergic rxns?
vomiting
diarrhea
pruritis (itching)
urticaria (hives)
anaphylaxis (rarely)
Allergens are often introduced via the mucosa at low dose, which favors IgE production. What are some characteristics of such allergens?
relatively small
highly soluble
carried on desiccated particles (pollen grains, mite feces)
What is Der p 1?
Der p 1 is a protease from the mite
What is occludin?
Occludin is a protein that maintains tight junctions
Give an overview of allergy to the house dust mite
1. Tight junctions seal the barrier of airway epithelium.
2. The enzyme Der p1 cleaves occludin in tight junction.
3. Der p 1 taken up by dendritic cells for Ag presentation and TH2 priming.
4. Der p 1-sp IgE binds to mast cells; Der p 1 triggers mast cell degranulation.