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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
first cell to appear in acute inflammatory reaction
PMN or neutrophils
PMN (neutrophils) contain ???
hydrolases, neutral proteases, and lysosomes
once activated, PMN's produce ?
hydroxyl radicals, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide...which aid in killing bacteria
function of eosinophils in host defense
unclear, but are recruited by inflammatory cells at sites of parasitic infection, tumors, and allergic reacions
comprise 0.5 to 1% of circulating granulocytes
basophils have these on their surface
IgE receptors which function similar to mast cells
Mast cells are located where ?
tissue fixed in perivascular spaces of the lung, skin, and intestine
provide immediate hypersensitivity resonse
Mast cell
Mast cells have what type of receptor on their surface
mast cells stimulated by ?
immune and non-immune stimuli
process of a mast cell reacting is called
these are released on degranulation of mast cell
histamine and cytokines...which cause a allergic reaction
interleukins are
group of cytokines that facilitate the communication between leukocytes
interleukins are a subset of
mech of action for cytokines
inflammatory cell activators synth by macrophages to act as messenger and activate endothelial and white cells
Interleukin-1 (Il-1) and tumor necrsis factor(TNF) produce ?
fever, neuropeptide release, endothelial cell activation, neutrophil priming, hypotension, myocardial suppression, and a catabolic state
interleukins come from ?
T-cell lymphocytes
ways to recognize bacteria
-complement system-
adherence of phago to antigen (opsonization, and cell lysis
complement system contains how many different proteins
approx 20, that bind to active antibodies, other complement protein, and cell membranes
activation of complement system
1. IgG or IgM binding to antigen
2. plasmin through traditional pathway
3. endotoxin
4. drugs through alternate pathway
name of alernate pathway in complement system
important pathological manifestation of complement activation
acute pulmonary vasoconstriction associated with protamine administration
allergy classified by these two people initially
Gell and Coombs
types of allergies
type I reaction is
immediate, anaphylactic type. extrinsic asthma and allergic rhinitis
in type I, mediators are released from ??
mast cells and basophils..after antigen binding to IgE antibodies on surface of these cells
type II known as
antibody dependant cell mediated cytotoxic
type II mediated by
IgG and IgM directed against antigens on the surface of foreign cells
surface antigens on type II may be ?
integral cell membrane components or haptens
haptens ???
absorb onto cell membrane and stimulate production of anti-hapten antibodies...autoimmune hemolytic anemia
types of type II reactions
ABO blood reaction
drug induced hemolytis anemia
heparin induced thrombocytopenia
type III allergy reaction
immune complex reaction. results from circulating soluble antigens and antibodies that bind to form insoluble complexes and deposit into microvasculature
initiation of type III allergy reaction
neutrophils are localized to the site of complement deposition and produce tissue damage
example of type III
snake venom
type IV reactions aka
delayed hypersensitivity reaction
durations and times of type IV reactions
manifest in 18-24hr, peak at 40-80hr, end 72-96hr
type IV examples
tissue rejection, graft vs host rejection, contact dermatitis, tb immunity
the most common life threatening manifestations of an allergic reaction is...
circulatory collapse
circulatory collapse is result of ...
profound vasodilation and decreased venous return
possibly only noticable sign of allergic reaction in OR ..
refractory hypotension
term used when allergic reactions are life threatening
when antibodies are not responsible or cannot be proven, called a ____rxn
anaphylactic and anaphylactoid rxn can/cannot be distinguished based on observation
can not
anaphylaxis is initiated by which Ig
re-exposure binds what on sell surface
2 IgE, located on mast cell or basophil, releasing histamine, etc