Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/42

Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hemichordata
-acorn worms and anteropneusts
-pharyngeal gill slits that are nonmobile
-body divided into proboscis collar, trunk
chordata
-notochord, dorsal hollow nerve chord, mobile pharyngeal gill slits
-post anal tail
-endostyle (ciliated groove on ventral wall of pharynx-aids in transporting food to esophagus)
-somites(segments in developing embryos that become the dermis, skeletal muscle, and vertebrae
urochordata
-tunicates and sea squirts
-notochord only in larval stage
-sessile in adult stage
cephalochordata
-lancelets
-filter feeders
craniata
-neural crest tissue during ontogeny
-brain enclosed in a cranium
myxiniformes
-hagfishes
-jawless
-single semicircular canal that aids in balance
vertebrata
-vertebrae, at least 2 semicircular canals
-muscular unpaired fins
-extrinsic eye muscles
petromyzontiformes
-jawless
-ring of teeth in mouth
-mostly parasitic
gnathostomata
-3 semicircular canals
-paired nostrils and jaws
-myelinated nerves
placodermi (extinct)
-jawed
-cranial and thoracic armors
-bony plates for teeth
elasmobranchii
-sharks, skates, rays
-gill pouches separated by thin sheets of connective tissue
chondrichthyes
-cartilaginous skeleton
-pelvic clasper in male
-heterocercal tail
holocephali
-chimaeras
-jaws fused with cranium
-head claspers
osteichthyes
-all bony fishes and tetrapods
-includes lobe fins and ray fins
sarcopterygii
-fleshy lobe finned fishes
-coelocanth, lungfishes, tetrapods
-enamaled teeth
-paired fins on muscular lobes
actinistia
-coelocanth
-intercranial joint
-diphycereal 3 lobed caudal fin
dipnoi
-can use both lungs and gills
-bony tooth plates
-solid immobile cranium
tetrapoda
-wrist and ankle bones
-dactyly (arrangements of digits; fingers and toes on hands and feet, sometimes wings)
-zygapophyces in vertebrae (stiffen the vertebral column)
lissamphibia
-pedicellate teeth
-bimodal life cycle
-glandular skin (respiratory organ)
-buccal pumping during breathing (uses throat muscles, externally apparent)
anura
-loss of tails in adults
-caudal bones fused to form urostyle
-longer hind limbs facilitates saltatory locomotion
-frogs and toads
caudata
-larvae with external gills
-horizontal septum between dorsal and ventral body
-newts and salamanders
gymnophiona
-loss of limbs in adults
-burrowing organisms
-protuscible tentacle between eyes and nostrils (chemosensory structure that can be thrust out)
-tongue not protuscible in adults
-caecilians
metatheria
-marsupials
-nipples
-viviparous
-pouch with epipubic bones
-bifurcated penis
eutheria
-placenta
-viviparous
-corpus luteum maintains pregnancy
monotremata
-oviparous
-loss of teeth in adults
-lack nipples
-single urogenital opening
-no sweat glands
-platypus and echidna
amniotes
-extra embryonic structures such as amnion, chorion, and allantois in amniotic eggs
-astragalus bone in ankle gives mobility
mammalia
-possess hair and milk glands
-oviparous (monotremes)
-viviparous (metatherians)
-placentals (eutherians)
-nurse young
-homeothermy
-inner ear bones
reptilia
-color vision
-temporal fenestae (bilaterally symmetrical holes in skull)
testudines
-anapsids
-lack of post temporal fenestra
-toothless
-jaws covered with a horny beak
-turtles
sauria
-columella bone in ear enhances hearing
archosauria
-longitudinal cloacal slit
-nesting behavior
-lack of palatal teeth
-crocodiles and birds
crocodylia
-semiaquatic
-carnivorous
-crocodiles
aves
-feathers
-homeothermy
-body structure adapted to flight (winged fingers, keeled sternum)
-birds
leptidosauria
-cloacal slit (posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts)
-intravertebral breakage zones (allows animal to drop tails)
-iguanas
squamata
-hemipores (bifurcated penis)
-loss of lower temporal bar (in skull)
-loss of limbs in some groups
-mobile skulls
-lizards and snakes
rhynchocephalia
-tuatara only remaining species
actinopterygii
-ray finned fishes
-single dorsal fin
cladistia
-africa
-reedfishes
-bichers-have ganoid scales (bone-like) and a series of dorsal finlets
chondrostei
-paddlefishes->elongated snout
-sturgeon:bony plated
-ganoid scales: interlocking and bone-like
ginglymodi
-gars-elongated and heavily armored
-ganoid scales
halecomorphi
-bowfin
-interopercle bone (bone of the lower gill cover) and mobile maxilla
-long dorsal fin
teleosts
-most numerous
-includes salmon, trout, bluegills, etc
-interopercle bone and mobile maxilla
-modified bones in the caudal fin skeleton known as uroneurals