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45 Cards in this Set

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Give another term for alexia without agraphia
Pure word blindness.
The definition of alexia without agraphia is...
inability or difficulty reading aloud words that are easily written (by the same person).
Alexia with agraphia means what?
Impairment in reading and writing-Dejerine thought that this was due to a lesion (infarction) involving the left parietal lobe such that the "optical image for words" was disrupted. This function was believed to be supported by the left angular gyrus.
Which form of alexia is reported to be the most common of the peripheral reading disturbances;
Pure alexia or alexia with agraphia?
Pure alexia, also known as alexia without agraphia agnosic alexia or letter by letter reading.
Describe the process of letter by letter reading.
Alexics who have lost the gestalt of the word often read the letters aloud, but seldom put the letters together to make the complete word.
Pure alexia is by no means pure in the sense that being alexic means one cannot read at all, true or false?
False. some patients retain the ability to recognize letter combinations, but conversely they may not be able to read them aloud. Still others retain some word recognition, but reading aloud may be impossible or abnormally slow.
True or False. All lesions to the left visual cortex result in alexia?
False, not all of them do and in fact, lesions in the left lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, or white matter including callosal fibers from the the intact Right visual cortex (which all provide input to this region of the brain) may result in alexia.
Alexia without agraphia (central alexia) is listed has having 3 basic clinical features. What are they?
1. A severe, but not necessarily complete disturbance in both reading and writing.
2. Loss of ability to name letters, comprehend spelled words or to read aloud.
3. Preserved ability to copy written language, but not comprehend what is being copied/written-merely reproducing the shapes.
Pathology of Central Alexia (alexia without agraphia) is usually where?
inferior parietal lobe of dominant hemisphere, usually angular gyrus with damage to both cortex and white matter.
List the most common causes of central alexia.
occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) or distal branches (inferior parietal lobe) and also may be caused by neoplastic lesions.
True or false: Central alexia is often accompanied by other neurobehavioral disorders?
True. Aphasia is often seen, components of Gerstmann's syndrome, and some degree of hemisensory loss and/or right homonymous visual field deficit.
List some common names for central alexia.
semantic alexia, parieto-temporal alexia, total (literal and verbal) alexia, surface alexia.
Alexia without Agraphia is also referred to as what?
Posterior Alexia. Basic clinical features include the ability to comprehend written material, normal writing, but cannot comprehend what they have written, writing is easier, but they have difficulty copying written language.
True or false? Individuals with posterior alexia can never redevelop their ability to read letters out loud or recognized orally spelled words.
False, this can be relearned but requires practice, they may develop the ability to spell words out loud and recognize the spelled word.
A right homonymous hemianopia is not uncommon to either Central or posterior alexia. Name another neurobehavioral symptom associated with posterior alexia?
color naming disturbance
Typically, posterior alexia is caused by an _______ in the ______ _______ artery _____.
infarction; left posterior; territory.
This includes the splenium of the corpus callosum
This occurrence disconnects ____ ____ from the _____ cortex.
visual information; language
Give some other common names for posterior alexia.
verbal alexia, visual alexia, pure alexia, occipital alexia, and associative alexia.
Give another name for Frontal Alexia.
Anterior Alexia, or, since it is the more recent, the third alexia.
Which feature is NOT a clinical feature of Anterior Alexia?
A.Difficulty naming letters of the alphabet-but may recognize some words.
B. Agrammatism of written language (recog. of some semantically meaninful words but trouble with grammatically significant words.
C.Possible comprehension of spelled words, but trouble spelling aloud.
E. Severe agraphia with poor copying.
It's D-dysarthria-nothing is wrong with the basic machinery for speech, not usually anyway.
True or False:neurological findings often associated with Anterior Alexia include right hemiplegia, nonfulent aphasia and may include a unilateral sensory and/or visual field neglect.
Of the three basic types presented, describe the level of impairment for reading written language.
Posterior=verbal alexia, Central=total alexia, Anterior=literal alexia.
Which type of alexia has no agraphia?
Posterior. Central and Anterior both have severe agraphia.
Anterior alexia is notable for _________ that is poor, clumsy and has omissions.
Copying-posterior and central alexia have slavish copying.
Name the two types of alexia that show severe letter anomia.
central and anterior.
Good comprehension of spelled words is found in ________ alexia.
Spelling aloud (if you have a central alexia) is what?
Very difficult if not impossible.
Posterior alexia is associated with _______ language output.
normal. Central alexia is associated with fluent aphasia and anterior alexia is associated with nonfluent aphasia.
Motor strength is _______ in posterior alexia. There may be ______ in central alexia and _______ in anterior alexia.
Normal. mild paresis. hemiplegia.
There is no motor apraxia in _______, it may sometimes occur in ________ and is frequently present in _________.
Posterior alexia, central alexia and anterior alexia.
_________ is not usually seen in anterior alexia, while a _____ _____ is often seen in posterior alexia and it is _______ seen in central alexia
A field cut, right hemianopia, sometimes
In which of the three alexias is Gerstmann's syndrome most frequently present?
Central alexia. It is not usually seen in posterior or anterior alexia.
Define Phonological alexia-dyslexia.
-inability to make spelling to sound correspondence rules.
-visual paralexias=real words misread as visually similar words (car for cat)
-better reading of high frequency words.
-spelling is usually impaired.
Name that alexia:
-presence of a grapheme to phoneme conversion disorder.
-unable to read words with irregular orthography, e.g. tough read as tug.
-also can't read words with regular orthography.
Surface alexia (dyslexia)
Define deep alexia (a.k.a. dyslexia).
-reading error are based on semantic (real word) susbstitutions for target words. (semantic paralexias)
-substituted word may be a semantic paralexia, a totally incorrect word or neologism (infant could be read as baby, basement or garvon)
-syntactic (functional) words are almost totally omitted.
-pseudo words can't be produced.
The total loss of the ability to understand written or printed language is known as what?
Global alexia-it is synonymous with central alexia, but indicates a total loss.
Hemi-alexia=one ____ _____ is affected for reading, but not the other.
visual field, this is often associated with severing of the posterior corpus callosum-the splenium.
A disorder where one only reads half of a word is known as what?
hemi-spatial alexia. This is usually seen in context of either a homonymous visual field or unilateral attention deficit (e.g., "basketball" read as "ball")
An inability to recognize letters of the alphabet is known as what?
Literal alexia. it is a significant feature of Anterior Alexia and is often contrasted with verbal alexia.
The opposite of literal alexia is what?
Verbal alexia. the person can read individual letters but cannot read the full word. This is often seen in the context of the posterior alexia.
A paralexia is defined how?
As a substitution made when reading aloud. There are multiple types: literal, semantic, phonemic etc.
A disorder of reading based on difficulty perceiving location (place holding) of letters or words or maintaining the correct sequence of lines of print.
Spatial alexia-generally seen in context of right hemisphere dysfunction.
Attentional dyslexia
a reading disorder characterized by a gross disturbance in reading multiple words or text, secondary to disturbance in visual attention; single-word reading is relatively preserved.
Central dyslexias
contrasted with peripheral dyslexias. a disorder that affects processes by which word forms activate meaning or speech production mechanisms ("higher" language processes).
-Includes deep, phonologic and surface dyslexias.
Shallice and Warrington suggested this term. It is contrasted with central dyslexias and is associated with visual processing deficits in which visual inputs cannot be associated with stored representations of written words, includes attentional and neglect dyslexias and alexia without agraphia....
Peripheral dyslexias