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196 Cards in this Set

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In the case of a radio failure or aircraft not equipped with a radio, air traffic control may use a signal lamp to direct the aircraft. The signal lamp has a focused bright beam and emits what three colors
red, white and green
When planes have no radio capability they can acknowledge signal lamp instructions from the tower by
wiggling their wings, moving the ailerons if on the ground, or by flashing their landing or navigation lights during hours of darkness
When the tower uses a Flashing white signal lamp to signal an Aircraft in flight it means
Land at this airport and proceed to Apron
When the tower uses a Flashing white signal lamp to signal an Aircraft on the ground it means
Return to starting point
When the tower uses a Flashing white signal lamp to signal Ground vehicles or personnel it means
Return to starting point
When the tower uses a Steady green signal lamp to signal Aircraft in flight it means
Cleared to land
When the tower uses a Steady green signal lamp to signal Aircraft on the ground it means
Cleared for takeoff
When the tower uses a Steady green signal lamp to signal Ground vehicles or personnel it means
Cleared to cross/proceed
When the tower uses a Flashing green signal lamp to signal Aircraft in flight it means
Cleared to approach airport, or return to land
When the tower uses a Flashing green signal lamp to signal Aircraft on the ground it means
Cleared to taxi
When the tower uses a steady red signal lamp to signal Aircraft in flight it means
Continue circling, give way to other aircraft
When the tower uses a steady red signal lamp to signal Aircraft on the ground it means
Stop
When the tower uses a steady red signal lamp to signal Ground vehicles or personnel it means
Stop
When the tower uses a Flashing red lamp to signal Aircraft in flight it means
Airport unsafe, do not land
When the tower uses a Flashing red lamp to signal Aircraft in flight it means
Airport unsafe, do not land
When the tower uses a Flashing red lamp to signal Aircraft on the ground it means
Immediately taxi clear of runway in use
When the tower uses a Flashing red lamp to signal Ground vehicles or personnel it means
Clear the taxiway/runway
When the tower uses a Alternating red and green lamp to signal Ground vehicles or personnel it means
Exercise extreme caution
When the tower uses a Alternating red and green lamp to signal Aircraft in flight it means
Exercise extreme caution
When the tower uses a Alternating red and green lamp to signal Aircraft on the ground it means
Exercise extreme caution
Blinking runway Aviation Lights mean
Vehicles, planes, and pedestrians immediately clear landing area in use
In the United States, radio frequencies made available by the Federal Communications Commission for use as UNICOM are:
122.700 MHz
122.725 MHz
122.800 MHz
122.950 MHz
122.975 MHz
123.000 MHz
123.050 MHz
123.075 MHz
four types of runways
-Visual runways
-Non-precision instrument runways
-Precision instrument runways
-STOL
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- ASP means
Asphalt
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- BIT means
Bitumenous Asphalt or Tarmac
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- BRI means
Bricks (no longer in use, covered with Asphalt or Concrete now)
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- CLA means
Clay
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- COM means
Composite
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- CON means
Concrete
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- COP means
Composite
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- GRS means
Grass or earth not graded or rolled
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- COR means
Coral (Coral reef structures)
RED OVER WHITE
YOU ARE ALL RIGHT
WHITE OVER RED
YOU ARE DEAD
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- GRE means
Graded or rolled earth, Grass on graded earth
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- GVL means
Gravel
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- LAT means
Laterite
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- ICE means
Ice
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- MAC means
Macadam
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- PEM means
Partially Concrete, Asphalt or Bitumen-bound Macadam
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- PER means
Permanent Surface, Details unknown
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- PSP means
Marsden Matting (Derived from Pierced/Perforated Steel Planking)
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- SAN means
Sand
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- SNO means
Snow
In aviation charts, the surface type is usually abbreviated to a three-letter code- U means
Unknown surface
The outer marker beacon is normally located ? miles from the threshold, the cockpit indicator is a ? lamp
4.5 mi; blue lamp
The middle marker beacon is normally located ? from the threshold and means that ___ and the cockpit indicator is a ? lamp
3,500 ft; visual contact with the runway is imminent; amber
The inner marker beacon is normally located ? from the threshold, the cockpit indicator is a ? lamp
1,000 ft; white lamp
a)This enhanced taxiway marking indicates that you are approaching the holding position marking.

b) Stopping behind this marking will ensure wingtip clearance for aircraft on an intersecting taxiway.

c) This painted marking indicates the line between a movement area and a non-movement area on the airport.

d) This marking indicates the edge of a path for vehicle traffic on areas also intended for aircraft.
c) This painted marking indicates the line between a movement area and a non-movement area on the airport.
a) Taxiing past this sign may interfere with operations on the runway even though it is not located at a runway intersection.

b) An aircraft that taxis past this sign may interfere with the navigational landing aid signals that an approaching aircraft is using.

c) This sign indicates an exit from a runway.

d)This sign identifies the taxiway you're currently on.
d)This sign identifies the taxiway you're currently on.
a) Taxiing past this sign may interfere with operations on the runway even though it is not located at a runway intersection.

b) This sign identifies the runway on which your aircraft is currently located.

c) This sign alerts you that you are approaching a runway and, on a taxiway, is accompanies by a runway holding positions marking.

d) This sign indicates the direction to a destination runway.
c) This sign alerts you that you are approaching a runway and, on a taxiway, is accompanies by a runway holding positions marking.
a) This sign indicates an exit from a runway.

b) Taxiing past this sign may interfere with operations on the runway even though it is not located at a runway intersection.

c) This sign alerts you that you are approaching a runway and, on a taxiway, is accompanies by a runway holding positions marking.

d) Taxiing past this sign may interfere with operations on the runway even though it is not located at a runway intersection.
d) Taxiing past this sign may interfere with operations on the runway even though it is not located at a runway intersection.
a) This enhanced taxiway marking indicates that you are approaching the holding position marking.

b) This marking indicates where an aircraft is to hold before entering a runway.

c) This marking indicates the edge of a path for vehicle traffic on areas also intended for aircraft.

d) This painted marking indicates the line between a movement area and a non-movement area on the airport.
b) This marking indicates where an aircraft is to hold before entering a runway.
a) This sign indicates an area prohibited to aircraft.

b) Taxiing past this sign may interfere with operations on the runway even though it is not located at a runway intersection.

c) An aircraft that taxis past this sign may interfere with the navigational landing aid signals that an approaching aircraft is using.

d) This sign alerts you that you are approaching a runway and, on a taxiway, is accompanies by a runway holding positions marking.
c) An aircraft that taxis past this sign may interfere with the navigational landing aid signals that an approaching aircraft is using.
a) These lights outline the edges of a runway.

b) These lights are sometimes installed on each side of a taxiway prior to its intersection with a runway.

c) Runway Threshold Light used to define the beginning of the runway pavement suitable for aircraft operations.

d) Runway End Light used to define the end of the runway pavement suitable for aircraft operation.
b) These lights are sometimes installed on each side of a taxiway prior to its intersection with a runway.
Best Practices for AIRFIELD SAFETY - PRE-FLIGHT PLANNING steps (4)
1.Review and understand airfield signage and markings.

2.Review the appropriate airport diagrams. Review any Hot Spots identified on the diagram. Print a copy for use in the cockpit.

3.Review airfield NOTAMS and current ATIS for any taxiway closures, runway closures, construction activity, or other airfield specific risks.

4.Brief any passengers on the importance to minimize discussions, questions, and conversation during taxi (maintain a “sterile cockpit”).
Best Practices for AIRFIELD SAFETY - TAXI steps (13)
1.Have the airport diagram out and available for immediate reference during taxi.

2.Review current ATIS for any taxiway closures, runway closures, construction activity, or other airfield specific risks.

3.During radio transmissions, use correct terminology and proper voice cadence.

4.Copy the taxi clearance and use the airport diagram to review the taxi route to the assigned runway prior to releasing brakes and beginning taxi.

5.Eliminate distractions while taxiing in the operational area.

6.Focus attention and have your "eyes out" of the cockpit when taxiing.

7.Maintain appropriate taxi speed.

8.Be alert to similar call signs operating on the field.

9.STOP aircraft on the taxiway and request ATC clarification if there is confusion regarding aircraft position or ATC taxi clearance.

10.Prior to crossing any runway during taxi, ensure you have a clearance to cross. Visually check to ensure there is no conflicting traffic prior to crossing the runway.

11.If there is any doubt that the runway is clear, reconfirm crossing clearance with ATC.

12.Be aware that hold short lines can be as far as 400’ from the runway due to new Precision Obstacle Free Zone (POFZ) requirements.

13.Maintain a “sterile cockpit” when taxiing.
Best Practices for AIRFIELD SAFETY - TAKE-OFF steps (5)
1.If cleared to “line up and wait”, turn on all exterior lights except take-off/landing lights. If you have been holding in position on the runway for more than 90 seconds, or upon seeing a potential conflict, contact the tower.

2.When “cleared for takeoff”, turn on all exterior lights, including take-off/landing lights.

3.Note that if you see an aircraft in take-off position on a runway with take-off/landing lights ON, that aircraft has most likely received its take-off clearance and will be departing immediately.

4.When assigned a departure at an intersection versus a full length takeoff, state “intersection departure” at the end of the take-off clearance readback.

5.Conduct "Clearing Turns" to check all areas prior to entering ANY runway.
Best Practices for AIRFIELD SAFETY - LANDING steps (2)
1.Wait until you have exited the active runway and you are sure of your taxi clearance prior to beginning an after-landing checklist

2.Follow the same TAXI Best Practices
ALS are a configuration of signal lights starting at the landing threshold and extending into the approach area a distance of ? feet for precision instrument runways and ? feet for Nonprecision instrument runways
2400−3000 ; 1400−1500
ALS stands for
Approach Light Systems
VASI stands for
Visual Glideslope Indicators
VASI installations may consist of either ?, ?
?, ?, or ? light units arranged in bars
2, 4,
6, 12, or 16
Two-bar VASI installations provide one
visual glide path which is normally set at ? degrees.
3
Two-bar VASI installations provide one
visual glide path which is normally set at 3 degrees.
Three-bar VASI installations provide two visual glide
paths. The lower glide path is provided by the near
and middle bars and is normally set at ? degrees while
the upper glide path, provided by the middle and far
bars, is normally ? degree higher.
3; 1/4
This higher glide path in a three-bar VASI installations is intended for use only by ? to provide ?
high cockpit aircraft; a sufficient threshold crossing height.
The VASI is a system of lights so arranged to
provide visual descent guidance information during
the approach to a runway. These lights are visible
from ? miles during the day and up to ? miles or
more at night
3−5; 20
Descent, using the VASI, should not be initiated until ?
the aircraft is visually aligned with the runway
In certain circumstances, the safe obstruction clearance area may be reduced due to local limitations, or the VASI may be offset from the extended runway centerline. This will be noted where?
in the Airport/ Facility Directory
For 2-bar VASI (4 light units) this indicates
Below Glide Path
For 2-bar VASI (4 light units) this indicates
On Glide Path
For 2-bar VASI (4 light units) this indicates
Above Glide Path
For 3-bar VASI (6 light units) this indicates
Below Both Glide Paths
For 3-bar VASI (6 light units) this means?
On Lower
Glide Path
for 3-bar VASI (6 light units) this means?
On Upper Glide Path
PAPI stands for
Precision Approach Path Indicator
The precision approach path indicator (PAPI) uses
light units similar to the VASI but are installed in a
single row of either ? or ? light units.
two or four
this Precision Approach Path Indicator shows
High (More Than 3.5 Degrees)
this Precision Approach Path Indicator shows
Slightly High (3.2 Degrees)
this Precision Approach Path Indicator shows
On Glide Path
(3 Degrees)
this Precision Approach Path Indicator shows
Slightly Low (2.8 Degrees)
this Precision Approach Path Indicator shows
Low (Less Than 2.5 Degrees)
Tri-color visual approach
slope indicators normally consist of
a single light unit
projecting a three-color visual approach path into the
final approach area of the runway
Tri-color Systems have a useful range of approximately
? during the day and up to ? at night
one-half to one mile; five miles
Since the tri-color VASI consists of a single light source which could possibly be confused with other light sources, pilots should
exercise care to properly locate and identify the light signal
PVASI stands for
Pulsating Visual Approach Slope Indicator
Runway End Identifier Lights consists of
a pair of synchronized flashing lights located laterally on each
side of the runway threshold
Runway End Identifier Lights are effective for
a. Identification of a runway surrounded by a
preponderance of other lighting.
b. Identification of a runway which lacks contrast
with surrounding terrain.
c. Identification of a runway during reduced
visibility.
Runway Edge Light Systems are used to
outline the edges of runways during periods of darkness or
restricted visibility conditions
Runway Edge Light Systems are what color?
white, except on instrument runways yellow replaces white on the last 2,000 feet or half the runway length, whichever is less, to form a caution zone for landings
The runway edge lights are ?, except on instrument runways yellow replaces white on the last ? feet or ?, whichever is less, to form a caution zone for landings.
white; 2000; half the runway length
RCLS stands for
Runway Centerline Lighting System
When viewed from the landing
threshold, the runway centerline lights are ? until
the last 3,000 feet of the runway. The lights begin to alternate with ? for the next 2,000 feet, and for the last 1,000 feet of the runway, all centerline lights are ?
white; red: red
Taxiway centerline lead−off lights are color−coded to warn pilots and vehicle drivers that
they are within the runway environment or instrument landing system/microwave landing system (ILS/MLS) critical area. How are they colored?
Alternate green and yellow lights
Land and hold short lights consist of
a row of pulsing white lights installed across the runway at the hold short point
RWSL stands for
Runway Status Light
RWSL is
a fully automated system that provides
runway status information to pilots and surface
vehicle operators to clearly indicate when it is unsafe
to enter, cross, takeoff from, or land on a runway
FAROS stands for
Final Approach Runway Occupancy Signal
FAROS (The Final Approach Runway Occupancy Signal) alerts arriving pilots that ? by ?
the approaching runway is occupied; flashing the Precision Approach Path Indicator

NOTE−At this time, the stand-alone FAROS system is not widely implemented and is used for evaluation purposes.
REL stands for
Runway Entrance Lights
When activated, red REL lights indicate
that there is high speed traffic on the runway or there is an aircraft on final approach within the activation area
Should pilots note illuminated red lights of the REL under circumstances when remaining clear of the runway is impractical for safety reasons (for example, aircraft is already on the runway), the crew should
proceed according to their best judgment while understanding the illuminated lights indicate the runway is unsafe to
enter or cross. Contact ATC at the earliest possible
opportunity.
THL stands for
Takeoff Hold Lights
THL Fixtures are focused toward the arrival end of the runway at ? and extend for ?feet in front of the holding aircraft
the “line up and wait” point; 1500
?, or ?, are required for the Takeoff Hold Lights to illuminate
Two aircraft; a surface vehicle and an aircraft
FAROS stands for
The Final Approach Runway Occupancy Signal
The Final Approach Runway Occupancy Signal (FAROS) is communicated by
flashing of the Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) - NOTE−
FAROS is an independent automatic alerting system that does not rely on ATC control or input
When a pilot observes a flashing PAPI at 500 feet above ground level (AGL), the contact height, the pilot must ?. At 300 feet AGL, the pilot must ? if the FAROS indication is in conflict
with the clearance. If the PAPI continues to flash, the
pilot must ?
look for and acquire the traffic on the runway; contact ATC for resolution; execute an immediate “go around” and
contact ATC at the earliest possible opportunity
When operating at airports with RWSL, pilots
must ? until it is shutdown
upon arrival at the gate or parking area.
operate with the transponder “On” when
departing the gate or parking area
Never cross over ? If RWSL indicates that it is unsafe to takeoff from, land on, cross, or enter a runway, immediately ?
illuminated red lights; notify ATC of the conflict and re-confirm the clearance.
Do not proceed when RWSL lights have extinguished
without
ATC clearance
Why must clearance to land on a runway be issued by Air Traffic Control (ATC) regardless of the FAROS signal status?
ATC personnel have limited control over the system and may not be able to view the FAROS signal
Runways With Medium Intensity Approach Lights with two interval steps selected by ? mike clicks
3 clicks - low
5 clicks - low
7 clicks - high
Runways With Medium Intensity Approach Lights with three interval steps selected by ? mike clicks
3 clicks- low
5 clicks - med
7 clicks - high
These lights are
Takeoff Hold Lights
these lights are
Runway Entrance Lights
these lights are a
Taxiway Lead−On Light Configuration
Airport and heliport beacons have a vertical light distribution to make them most effective from ? to ? degrees above the horizon
one to ten
REIL may be activated by radio control, Suggested use is to always initially key the mike ? times; this assures that all controlled lights are
turned on to the maximum available intensity
seven
All REIL lighting is illuminated for a period of ? minutes from the most recent time of activation and may not be extinguished prior to end of that period (except for 1−step and 2−step REILs which may be turned off when
desired by keying the mike ? or ? times respectively
15; 5; 3
always key mike as directed
when overflying an airport of intended landing or just prior to entering the final segment of an approach because
this will assure the aircraft is close enough to activate
the system and ensure a full 15 minutes lighting duration is
available
Airport/Heliport Beacons may be ? or it may ? which produces the visual effect of flashes at regular intervals
an omnidirectional capacitor-discharge device, rotate at a constant speed
Airport Beacons flash at ? to ? per minute
24-30
Heliport Beacons flash at ? to ? per minute
30 to 45
The colors and color combinations of beacons
are ? (5)
1. White and Green− Lighted land airport.
2. *Green alone− Lighted land airport.
3. White and Yellow− Lighted water airport.
4. *Yellow alone− Lighted water airport.
5. Green, Yellow, and White− Lighted heliport

Military airport beacons flash alternately white and green, but are differentiated from civil beacons by dualpeaked (two quick) white flashes between the green flashes.

*Green alone or yellow alone is used only in connection
with a white-and-green or white-and-yellow beacon
display, respectively.
operation of the airport beacon during the hours of daylight often indicates
that the ground visibility is less than 3 miles and/or the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet
Taxiway edge lights are used to outline the edges of taxiways during periods of darkness or restricted visibility conditions. These fixtures emit
blue light
Taxiway centerline lights are steady burning and emit
green light
Clearance increase the conspicuity of the holding position in low visibility conditions and consist of
three in-pavement steady-burning yellow lights
Runway guard lights are installed at taxiway/runway intersections to enhance the conspicuity of taxiway/runway intersections during low visibility conditions and consist of either ? or ?
a pair of elevated flashing yellow lights installed on either side of the taxiway, or a row of in-pavement yellow lights installed across the entire taxiway, at the runway
holding position marking
Pilots should never cross a ?, even if an ATC clearance has been given to proceed onto or
across the runway
red illuminated stop bar
Stop bar lights, when
installed, are used to confirm ? in low visibility
conditions (below ? ft Runway Visual Range).
ATC clearance to
enter or cross the active runway; 1,200
A stop bar consists of
a row of red, unidirectional, steady−burning in-pavement lights installed across the entire taxiway at the runway holding position, and elevated steady−burning red lights on each side
Following the ATC clearance to proceed, the ? is turned off and the ? is turned on
stop bar; lead-on lights
a) This sign indicates the direction to a destination runway.

b)This sign identifies the runway on which your aircraft is currently located.

c) This array is located at the intersection of two runways and a taxiway.

d)This sign alerts you that you are approaching a runway and, on a taxiway, is accompanies by a runway holding positions marking.
a) This sign indicates the direction to a destination runway.
For 3-bar VASI (6 light units) this means?
above both glide paths
The color or color combination displayed by a particular beacon and/or its auxiliary lights tell whether the beacon is indicating
a landing place, landmark, point of the Federal airways, or an obstruction
Code Beacons are used to identify airports and landmarks how?
flashes the three or four character airport identifier in International Morse Code six to eight times per minute

NOTE−
Airway beacons are remnants of the “lighted” airways which antedated the present electronically equipped federal airways system. Only a few of these beacons exist today to mark airway segments in remote mountain areas. Flashes in Morse code identify the beacon site.
For runways having touchdown zone markings on
both ends, those pairs of markings which extend to
within ? of the midpoint between the
thresholds are eliminated
900 feet (270m)
Runway side stripes delineate the edges of the runway. They provide a visual contrast between runway and the abutting terrain or shoulders. Side stripes consist of ?
continuous white stripes located on each side of the runway
Runway shoulder
stripes may be used to supplement runway side
stripes to identify pavement areas contiguous to the
runway sides that are not intended for use by aircraft.
Runway Shoulder stripes are what color?
yellow
Runway threshold markings come in two configurations. They either consist of ?, or ?
eight longitudinal stripes of uniform dimensions disposed symmetrically about the
runway centerline; number of stripes is related to the runway width
Number of Runway Threshold Stripes for a runway that is 60 feet in width
4
Number of Runway Threshold Stripes for a runway that is 75 feet in width
6
Number of Runway Threshold Stripes for a runway that is 100 feet in width
8
Number of Runway Threshold Stripes for a runway that is 150 feet in width
12
Number of Runway Threshold Stripes for a runway that is 200 feet in width
16
One common practice to identify a relocation of a runway threshold due to construction, maintenance, or other activities is to use what marking?
ten feet wide white threshold bar across the width of the runway
two categories of airspace or airspace
areas
1. Regulatory (Class A, B, C, D and E airspace areas, restricted and prohibited areas)

2. Nonregulatory (military operations areas (MOAs), warning areas, alert areas, and controlled firing areas).
Within Regulatory and Nonregulatory categories, there are four types of airspace
1. Controlled,
2. Uncontrolled,
3. Special use, and
4. Other airspace.
The categories and types of airspace are dictated by
1. The complexity or density of aircraft movements
2. The nature of the operations conducted within the airspace
3. The level of safety required
4. The national and public interest.
Except as provided in 14 CFR Section 91.157, Special VFR Weather Minimums, no person may operate an aircraft beneath the ceiling under VFR within the lateral boundaries of controlled airspace
designated to the surface for an airport when the ceiling is less than ? feet
1,000 feet
The basic VFR minimums for Class B airspace are
3 statute miles flight visibility and clear of clouds
The basic VFR minimums for Class C airspace are
3 statute miles flight visibility
500 feet below clouds
1,000 feet above clouds
2,000 feet horizontally from clouds
The basic VFR minimums for Class D airspace are
3 statute miles flight visibility
500 feet below clouds
1,000 feet above clouds
2,000 feet horizontally from clouds
The basic VFR minimums for Class E airspace (less than 10,000 feet MSL) are
3 statute miles flight visibility
500 feet below clouds
1,000 feet above clouds
2,000 feet horizontally from clouds
The basic VFR minimums for Class E airspace (at or above 10,000 feet MSL) are
5 statute miles flight visibility
500 feet below clouds
1,000 feet above clouds
2,000 feet horizontally from clouds
The basic VFR minimums DURING THE DAY for Class G airspace (1,200 feet or less above the surface - regardless of MSL
altitude) are
one statute mile flight visibility and clear of clouds
The basic VFR minimums AT NIGHT for Class G airspace (1,200 feet or less above the surface - regardless of MSL
altitude) are
3 statute miles flight visibility
500 feet below clouds
1,000 feet above clouds
2,000 feet horizontally from clouds
The basic VFR minimums DURING THE DAY for Class G airspace (More than 1,200 feet above the surface but less than
10,000 feet MSL) are
1 statute miles flight visibility
500 feet below clouds
1,000 feet above clouds
2,000 feet horizontally from clouds
The basic VFR minimums AT NIGHT for Class G airspace (More than 1,200 feet above the surface but less than 10,000 feet MSL) are
3 statute miles flight visibility
500 feet below clouds
1,000 feet above clouds
2,000 feet horizontally from clouds
The basic VFR minimums AT NIGHT for Class G airspace (More than 1,200 feet above the surface and at or above 10,000 feet MSL.) are
5 statute miles flight visibility
1000 feet below clouds
1,000 feet above clouds
1 statute mile horizontally from clouds
VFR Cruising Altitudes and Flight Levels: if your magnetic course
(ground track) is 0 to 179 degrees and you are more than 3,000 feet above the surface but below 18,000 feet MSL, fly
Odd thousands MSL, plus 500 feet
(3,500; 5,500; 7,500, etc.)
VFR Cruising Altitudes and Flight Levels: if your magnetic course
(ground track) is180 to 359 degrees and you are more than 3,000 feet above the surface but below 18,000 feet MSL, fly
Even thousands MSL, plus 500 feet
(4,500; 6,500; 8,500, etc.)
VFR Cruising Altitudes and Flight Levels: if your magnetic course
(ground track) is 0 to 179 degrees and you are above 18,000 feet
MSL to FL 290, fly
Odd Flight Levels plus 500 feet
(FL 195; FL 215; FL 235, etc.)
VFR Cruising Altitudes and Flight Levels: if your magnetic course
(ground track) is 180 to 359 degrees and you are above 18,000 feet MSL to FL 290, fly
Even Flight Levels plus 500 feet
(FL 185; FL 205; FL 225, etc.)
IFR operations in any
class of controlled airspace requires that a pilot must
file an IFR flight plan and receive an appropriate ATC clearance.
An Aircraft conflict/Mode C Intruder Alert is issued
if
the controller observes another aircraft which places it in an unsafe proximity. When feasible, the controller will offer the pilot an alternative course of action.
MSL stands for
mean sea level
AGL stands for
above ground level
FL stands for
flight level
No person may operate an ultralight vehicle within ? airspace designated for an airport unless that person has prior authorization from the ATC facility having jurisdiction over that airspace.
Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace or within the lateral boundaries of the surface area of Class E
Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an unmanned free balloon
below 2,000 feet above the surface within the lateral boundaries of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for an airport
No person may make a parachute jump, and no pilot−in−command may allow a parachute jump to be made from that aircraft, in or into
Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace without, or in violation of, the terms of an ATC authorization issued by the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the airspace.
Class A Airspace is defined generally as
airspace from 18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600, including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous
States and Alaska; and designated international airspace beyond 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska within areas of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar coverage, and within which domestic procedures are applied.
Unless otherwise authorized, all persons must operate their aircraft under ? In class A airspace.
IFR
Class B Airspace is generally defined as
that airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation’s busiest airports in terms of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. The configuration of each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers (some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace. An ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that are so cleared receive separation services within the airspace.
The cloud clearance requirement for VFR operations in class B airspace is
“clear of clouds.”
ATC clearance is required prior to operating within Class B airspace. Pilots should not request a clearance to operate within Class B airspace unless they
1) are equipped with an operable two-way radio capable of communicating with ATC on appropriate frequencies for that Class B airspace
2)The pilot−in−command holds at least a private pilot certificate; or (b) The aircraft is operated by a student pilot or recreational pilot who seeks private pilot certification
3) each person operating a large turbine engine-powered airplane to or from a primary airport must operate at or above the designated floors while within the lateral limits of Class B airspace
4) each aircraft must be equipped as follows:
(a) For IFR operations, an operable VOR or TACAN receiver; and
(b) For all operations, a two-way radio capable of communications with ATC on appropriate frequencies for that area; and (c) Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting equipment.
5) aircraft operating within this airspace must be equipped with automatic pressure altitude reporting equipment having Mode C capability
6) No person may take off or land a civil aircraftat certain primary airports within Class B airspace
Class B airspace is charted on
Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and Terminal Area Charts.
Arriving aircraft operating under VFR must
obtain an ATC clearance prior to entering Class B airspace and must contact ATC on the appropriate frequency, and in relation to geographical fixes shown on local charts
Although a pilot may be operating beneath the floor of the Class B airspace on initial contact, communications with ATC should be established when?
established in relation to the points indicated for spacing and sequencing purposes
Aircraft not landing or departing the primary airport may obtain an ATC clearance to transit the Class B airspace when traffic conditions permit. Pilots are encouraged to operate where and use what frequency?
operate at altitudes above or below the Class B airspace or transit through established VFR corridors. Pilots operating in VFR corridors are urged to use frequency 122.750 MHz for the exchange of aircraft position
information.
VFR aircraft are separated in class B airspace from all VFR/IFR aircraft which weigh more than 19,000 and turbojets
by no less than:
(a) 1 1/2 miles lateral separation, or
(b) 500 feet vertical separation, or
(c) Visual separation.
VFR aircraft are encouraged to utilize the ? as a tool for planning flight in proximity to Class B airspace
VFR Planning Chart
ABBREVIATED IFR FLIGHT PLANS are
An authorization by ATC requiring pilots to submit only that information needed for the purpose of ATC. It includes only a small portion of the usual IFR flight plan information. In certain instances, this may be only aircraft identification, location, and pilot request. Other information may be requested if needed by ATC for separation/control purposes. It is
frequently used by aircraft which are airborne and desire an instrument approach or by aircraft which are
on the ground and desire a climb to VFR-on-top
ABEAM means
An aircraft is “abeam” a fix, point, or
object when that fix, point, or object is approximately 90 degrees to the right or left of the aircraft track. Abeam indicates a general position rather than a precise point
ABORT means to
terminate a preplanned aircraft maneuver; e.g., an aborted takeoff
ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE is the
The runway plus stopway length declared available and suitable for the acceleration and deceleration of an airplane aborting a takeoff.
ACKNOWLEDGE means
Let me know that you have received and understood this message.
ACROBATIC FLIGHT is
An intentional maneuver involving an abrupt change in an aircraft’s attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an abnormal acceleration not necessary for normal flight.
ACTUAL CALCULATED LANDING TIME is
a flight’s frozen calculated landing time. An actual time determined at freeze calculated landing time (FCLT) or meter list display interval (MLDI) for the adapted vertex for each arrival aircraft based upon runway configuration, airport acceptance rate, airport arrival delay period, and other metered arrival aircraft. This time is either the vertex time of arrival (VTA) of the aircraft or the tentative calculated landing time (TCLT)/ACLT of the previous aircraft plus the arrival aircraft interval (AAI), whichever is later. This time will not be updated in response to the aircraft’s progress
The taxiway centerline
is a
a single continuous yellow line, 6 inches (15 cm) to
12 inches (30 cm) in width
The enhanced taxiway centerline marking consists of ? and the taxiway centerlines are enhanced for a maximum of ? feet prior to a runway holding position marking
a parallel line of yellow dashes on either side of the
normal taxiway centerline; 150 feet
The purpose of the enhanced taxiway enhancement is to
warn the pilot that he/she is approaching a runway holding position marking and
should prepare to stop unless he/she has been cleared onto or across the runway by ATC
two types of Taxiway Edge Markings markings
1. Continuous Markings. - double yellow line, with each line being at least 6 inches in width spaced 6 inches
apart used to define the taxiway edge from the shoulder or some other abutting paved surface not intended for use by aircraft.
2. Dashed Markings. These markings are used when there is an operational need to define the edge of a taxiway or taxilane on a paved surface where the adjoining pavement to the taxiway edge is intended for use by aircraft, e.g., an apron. Dashed taxiway edge markings consist of a broken double yellow line, with each line being at least 6 inches
in width, spaced 6 inches apart