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59 Cards in this Set

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HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER ADVISORY SERVICE (HIWAS).
Controllers shall advise pilots of hazardous weather that may impact operations within 150 NM of their sector or area of jurisdiction. (7110.65 2-6-2)
Terminal facilities have the option to limit hazardous weather information broadcasts as follows:
Tower cab and approach control facilities may opt to broadcast hazardous weather information alerts only when any part of the area described is within 50 NM of the airspace under their jurisdiction. (7110.65 2-6-2c.)
Hazardous weather information contained in HIWAS broadcasts includes...
Airmen’s Meteorological Information (AIRMET), Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET), Convective SIGMET (WST), Urgent Pilot Weather Reports (UUA), and Center Weather Advisories (CWA). (7110.65 2-6-2)
AIRMET
In-flight weather advisories issued only to amend the area forecast concerning weather phenomena which are of operational interest to all aircraft and potentially hazardous to aircraft having limited capability because of lack of equipment, instrumentation, or pilot qualifications. AIRMETs concern weather of less severity than that covered by SIGMETs or Convective SIGMETs. AIRMETs cover moderate icing, moderate turbulence, sustained winds of 30 knots or more at the surface, widespread areas of ceilings less than 1,000 feet and/or visibility less than 3 miles, and extensive mountain obscurement. (7110.65 Glossary)
SIGMET
Advisories that cover severe and extreme turbulence, severe icing, and widespread dust or sandstorms that reduce visibility to less than 3 miles. (7110.65 Glossary)
Convective SIGMET (WST)
A weather advisory concerning convective weather significant to the safety of all aircraft. Convective SIGMETs are issued for tornadoes, lines of thunderstorms, embedded thunderstorms of any intensity level, areas of thunderstorms greater than or equal to VIP level 4 with an area coverage of 4/10 (40%) or more, and hail 3/4 inch or greater. (7110.65 Glossary)
Urgent Pilot Weather Reports (UUA)
Part of a PIREP. The message identifier "UA" is used when the PIREP contains non-hazardous weather information. If the PIREP contains a report of a tornado, funnel cloud, waterspout, severe turbulence, severe icing, hail, or a low level wind shear hazard, the identifier "UUA" would be used. (7110.10U)
Center Weather Advisories (CWA).
An unscheduled weather advisory issued by Center Weather Service Unit meteorologists for ATC use to alert pilots of existing or anticipated adverse weather conditions within the next 2 hours. A CWA may modify or redefine a SIGMET. (7110.65 Glossary)
PIREP
Pilot Weather Report. Significant PIREP information includes reports of strong frontal activity, squall lines, thunderstorms, light to severe icing, wind shear and turbulence (including clear air turbulence) of moderate or greater intensity, volcanic eruptions and volcanic ash clouds, and other conditions pertinent to flight safety.
TERMINAL. Ensure that at least one descent/climb- out PIREP, including cloud base/s, top/s, and other related phenomena, is obtained each hour. (7110.65 2-6-3)
PIREPs shall include:
Solicit PIREPs when requested or when one of the following conditions exists or is forecast for your area of jurisdiction:
-Ceilings at or below 5,000 feet
-Visibility (surface or aloft) at or less than 5 miles.
-Thunderstorms and related phenomena.
-Turbulence of moderate degree or greater.
-Icing of light degree or greater.
-Wind shear (gain-tailwind or loss-headwind)
-Volcanic ash clouds.
-TERMINAL. Braking Action Advisories are in effect.
(7110.65 2-6-3)
Record with the PIREPs:
1. Time.
2. Aircraft position.
3. Type aircraft.
4. Altitude.
5. When the PIREP involves icing include:
(a) Icing type and intensity.
(b) Air temperature in which icing is occurring.
(7110.65 2-6-3)
Issue weather and chaff information by defining the area of coverage in terms of:
Azimuth (by referring to the 12 hour clock) and distance from the aircraft or by indicating the general width of the area and the area of coverage in terms of fixes or distance and direction from fixes.
Use the term ________when describing radar derived weather. Do not use the word _________ in describing radar derived weather.
-Precipitation
-Turbulence
Radar derived weather (precipitation) is described as:
1. LIGHT.
2. MODERATE.
3. HEAVY.
4. EXTREME.
TERMINAL. Relay all operationally significant PIREPs to:
- The facility weather coordinator.
- The appropriate intrafacility positions. (LC FD GC)
(7110.65 2-6-3)
Calm wind conditions are?
TERMINAL. Describe the wind as calm when the wind velocity is less than three knots.
(7110.65 2-6-5)
When the prevailing visibility at the usual point of observation, or at the tower level, is less than ______, tower personnel shall take prevailing visibility observations.
- 4 Miles
(7110.65 2-6-6)
Use the _____ of the two observations (tower or surface) for aircraft operations.
- lower
(7110.65 2-6-6)
Forward tower visibility observations to the ________ ________.
- Weather observer
(7110.65 2-6-6)
Notify the weather observer when the tower observes the prevailing visibility decrease to less than ______ or increase to ______ or more.
- 4 miles
- 4 miles
(7110.65 2-6-6)
TERMINAL. Observed elements of weather information shall be disseminated as follows:
a. General weather information... which does not include specific values, and any elements derived directly from instruments, pilots, or radar may be transmitted to pilots or other ATC facilities without consulting the weather reporting station.
b. Specific values, such as ceiling and visibility, may be transmitted if obtained by an official weather observer or weather equipment.
(7110.65 2-6-7)
Both en route and terminal approach control sectors shall provide current approach information to aircraft destined to airports for which they provide approach control services. This information shall be provided on _____ _____ or _____ _____ _____
- initial contact
- as soon as possible thereafter.
(7110.65 4-7-10)
VFR
Visual Flight Rules - flight rules are established by the Federal Aviation Administration, the FAA. Generally speaking, with the exception of certain controlled airspace restrictions, you can do, within reason, what you want to do. To fly VFR, a flight plan, with a few exceptions, is not required.
(General internet definition)
VMC
Visual Meteorological Conditions.
Weather conditions equal to or better than the minimum for flight under visual flight rules.
Also refers to conditions that permit a pilot to maintain visual reference with a horizon and provide enough visual references by which he or she can navigate. Clear of clouds.
(Minimum: Ceiling at or below 1,000' and/or visibility is at or below 3 NM)
(7110.65 Glossary) &
(FAA FAR 91)(Internet)
IFR
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES - Rules governing the procedures for conducting instrument flight. Also a term used by pilots and controllers to indicate type of flight plan. (Minimum: Ceiling at or below 1,000' and/or visibility is at or below 3 NM)
(7110.65 Glossary) &
(FAA FAR 91)
IMC
Instrument Meteorological Conditions.
- An aviation flight category that describes weather conditions that require pilots to fly primarily by reference to instruments, and therefore under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), rather than by outside visual references under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Typically, this means flying in cloud or bad weather.
(Minimum: Ceiling at or below 1,000' and/or visibility is at or below 3 NM)
(7110.65 Glossary) &
(FAA FAR 91) (Internet)
When low level wind shear/microburst is reported by pilots...
A statement must be included on the ATIS for 20 minutes following the last report or indication of the wind shear/micro burst.
(7110.65 3-1-8)
Wind Shear
A change in wind speed and/or wind direction in a short distance resulting in a tearing or shearing effect. It can exist in a horizontal or vertical direction and occasionally in both.
(7110.65 Glossary)
Clear Air Turbulence (CAT)
Turbulence encountered in air where no clouds are present. This term is commonly applied to high-level turbulence associated with wind shear. CAT is often encountered in the vicinity of the jet stream.
(7110.65 Glossary)
Wind Shear Escape
An unplanned abortive maneuver initiated by the pilot in command (PIC) as a result of on-board cockpit systems. Wind shear escapes are characterized by maximum thrust climbs in the low altitude terminal environment until wind shear conditions are no longer detected.
(7110.65 Glossary)
Altimeter Setting
The barometric pressure reading used to adjust a pressure altimeter for variations in existing atmospheric pressure or to the standard altimeter setting (29.92).
(7110.65 Glossary)
QNE
The barometric pressure used for the standard altimeter setting (29.92 inches Hg.).
(7110.65 Glossary)
QNH
The barometric pressure as reported by a particular station.
(7110.65 Glossary)
Use the term___________ for altimeter settings reported or received as estimated.
"Estimated Altimeter"
(7110.65 2-7-1)
TERMINAL. Identify the source of an altimeter setting when issued for a location other than the aircraft’s _____ or _____ airport.
- departure
- destination
(7110.65 2-7-2)
Issue the altimeter setting aircraft at least ___ time while
operating in your area of jurisdiction.
- one
(7110.65 2-7-3)
The tower may omit the altimeter if the aircraft is sequenced or vectored to the airport by the approach control having jurisdiction at that facility. T or F?
True
(7110.65 2-7-4)
Issue the following clearance items, as appropriate, in the order listed:
a. Aircraft identification.
b. Clearance limit.
c. Standard Instrument Departure (SID).
d. Route of flight including PDR/PDAR/PAR when applied.
e. Altitude data in the order flown.
f. Mach number, if applicable.
g. (See USAF note in 7110.65)
h. Holding instructions.
i. Any special information.
j. Frequency and beacon code information.
(7110.65 4-2-1)
USAF. When issuing a clearance to an airborne aircraft containing an altitude assignment, do not include more than one of the following in the same transmission:
1. Frequency change.
2. Transponder change.
3. Heading.
4. Altimeter setting.
5. Traffic information containing an altitude.
(7110.65 4-2-1)
"Have Numbers"
Used by pilots to inform ATC that they have received runway, wind, and altimeter information only.
Pilot use of “have numbers” indicates receipt of the ATIS broadcast. T or F
False
(7110.65)
Prevailing Visibility
The greatest horizontal visibility equaled or exceeded throughout at least half the horizon circle which need not necessarily be continuous.(7110.65 Glossary VISIBILITY c.)
USAF Controllers serve as official weather observers. T or F?
False
(7110.65 2-6-7b1 note)
Issue airport condition information necessary for an aircraft’s safe operation ____ ____ ____ ___.
- in time for it to be useful to the pilot.
(7110.65 3-3-3)
RVR
Runway Visual Range - Represents the horizontal distance a pilot will see down the runway from the approach end. RVR is based on what a pilot in a moving aircraft should see looking down the runway.
(7110.65 Glossary VISIBILITY e.)
Touchdown RVR
The RVR visibility readout values obtained from RVR equipment serving the runway touchdown zone.
(7110.65 Glossary VISIBILITY e1.)
Mid-(point) RVR
The RVR readout values obtained from RVR equipment located midfield of the runway.
(7110.65 Glossary VISIBILITY e2.)
Roll-out RVR
The RVR readout values obtained from RVR equipment located nearest the roll-out end of the runway.
(7110.65 Glossary VISIBILITY e3.)
RVV
Runway Visibility Value The visibility determined for a particular runway by a transmissometer. RVV is used in lieu of prevailing visibility in determining minimums for a particular runway.
(7110.65 Glossary VISIBILITY d.)
VISIBILITY
The ability... to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night, reported as statute miles, hundreds of feet or meters.
(7110.65 Glossary)
Transmissometer
An apparatus used to determine visibility by measuring the transmission of light through the atmosphere. It is the measurement source for determining runway visual range (RVR) and runway visibility value (RVV).
(7110.65 Glossary)
Issue current touchdown RVR/RVV for the runway(s) in use:
1. When prevailing visibility is 1 mile or less regardless of the value indicated.
2. When RVR/RVV indicates a reportable value regardless of the prevailing visibility.
3. When it is determined from a reliable source that the indicated RVR value differs by more than 400 feet from the actual conditions within the area of the transmissometer, the RVR data is not acceptable and shall not be reported.
4.When the observer has reliable reports,or has otherwise determined that the instrument values are not representative of the associated runway, the data shall not be used.
b. Issue both midpoint and roll-out RVR when the value of either is less than 2,000 feet and the touchdown RVR is greater than the midpoint or roll-out RVR.
c. Local control shall issue the current RVR/RVV to each aircraft prior to landing or departure in accordance with subparas a and b.
(7110.65 2-8-2)
RVR/RVV reportable values are?
- RVR 6,000 feet or less
- RVV 1 1/2 miles or less.
(7110.65 2-8-2a2 note)
What is a reliable weather source consider to be?
- A certified weather observer, automated weather observing system, air traffic controller (non USAF), flight service specialist, or pilot.
(7110.65 2-8-2a3 note)
HIWAS
HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER ADVISORY SERVICE
(7110.65 Glossary)
RVR and RVV condition greater than or less than reportable values is stated as:
"MORE THAN"
or
"LESS THAN"
(7110.65 2-8-3)
Hazardous Weather Information
Summary of significant meteorological information (SIGMET/WS), convective significant meteorologi- cal information (convective SIGMET/WST), urgent pilot weather reports (urgent PIREP/UUA), center weather advisories (CWA), airmen’’s meteorological information (AIRMET/WA) and any other weather such as isolated thunderstorms that are rapidly developing and increasing in intensity, or low ceilings and visibilities that are becoming wide- spread which is considered significant and are not included in a current hazardous weather advisory.
(7110.65 Glossary)
HIWAS BROADCAST AREA
A geographical area of responsibility including one or more HIWAS outlet areas assigned to an AFSS/FSS for hazardous weather advisory broadcasting.
(7110.65 Glossary)
HIWAS OUTLET AREA
An area defined as a 150 NM radius of a HIWAS outlet, expanded as necessary to provide coverage.
(7110.65 Glossary)