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14 Cards in this Set

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Opportunistic infections with AIDS
- PCP (pneumocystis jiroveci), CD4 < 200
- Cryptococcal meningitis, CD4 < 100
- Mycobacterium avium CD4 < 75
- Toxoplasmosis CD4 < 100
- Candidiasis any CD4 count
- candida esophagitis, CD4 < 200
- Cytomegalovirus retinitis, CD4 < 75
- Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, CD4 < 100
Symptoms of PCP
- pneumonia
- treated with bactrim
symptoms of Cryptococcal meningitis
- slow indolent onset
- headaches, fatigue, fevers
- increased pressure in brain leads to blindness, hearing loss, coma
Symptoms of Mycobacterium avium
- soil bacterium
- high fevers, night sweats, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, diarrhea
- diagnosis from growth from blood culture
- requires weekly prophylaxis
Symptoms of toxoplasmosis
- large brain lesions
- headache
- behavior changes
- bactrim is prophylactic
symptoms of PML (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
- reactivation of JC virus
- infects oligodendrocytes
- loss of myelin
- any neurologic symptom
When to treat HIV
- at time of primary infection
- if patient has an opportunistic infection
- when CD4 < 350
Structure of retroviridae
- enveloped
- positive polarity diploid RNA
- replicate by reverse transcription
- capsid contains viral reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease enzymes.
basic genes of retroviruses
- gag: capsid, nucleocapsid, matrix and sometimes protease
- pol: reverse transcriptase, integrase, sometimes protease
- env: envelope proteins
- genome ends in long terminal repeats which has strong promoters and is essential for replication.
Replication of retroviruses
- entry by receptor binding and membrane fusion
- partial uncoating and reverse transcription in cytoplasm
- integration into cellular DNA
- transcription and translation
- Assembly
- release by non-cytolytic budding
- post-budding maturation
Properties of HBV reverse transcription
- location of reverse transcription is parent cell
- viral nucleic acid is partially DS DNA
- product is partially DS DNA
- Transcription template is nuclear episome
- transcription machinery is host RNA polymerase II
- error prone
Properties of HIV reverse transcription
- Location of reverse transcription is the new host cell
- viral nucleic acid is SS +RNA
- product structure is linear DS DNA
- Transcription template is nuclear integrated provirus
- transcription machinery is host RNA polymerase II
- error prone
Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1
- complex retrovirus
- major cause of T-cell leukemia
- common in Japan, Caribbean, S. America, Africa
- Transmission; sexual, transfusion, vertical
- oncogenic through expression of Tax gene
HIV receptors
- CD4 necessary but not sufficient
- co-receptor necessary (chemokines)